Open Access Original Research Article

Characteristics of Bio-oil from the Fast Pyrolysis of Elephant Grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach) in a Fluidized Bed Reactor

Joao F. Sousa, Marcio B. D. Bezerra, Marlon B. B. Almeida, Gustavo T. Moure, Juan M. Mesa-Perez, Elina B. Caramao

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/25843

Bio-oil was obtained from the fast pyrolysis of elephant grass in a semi-pilot scale pyrolysis plant equipped with a 40 kg/h fluidized bed reactor. The temperature varied between 480 and 520°C. The biomass (moisture of 10%) was fed with a rate between 20 and 35 kg/h. Approximately 4.5 kg of sand was used as fluidizing agent. The pyrolytic oil was analyzed for the contents of carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen and sulfur. Water content, acidity, pH, viscosity at 40°C, density and higher heating value were also determined. Chromatographic analysis showed that it was composed mostly of acetic acid, syringol, vinyl-phenol, guaiacol and hexanoic acid. Main results are used to compare the influence of different configurations of a gas-washing column and vapor condensation system on the properties of the bio-oil.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biodegradation of Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate and Methyl Paraben in Shampoo and Hair Dressing Salon Waste by Bacteria from Sewage Treatment Sludge

P. U. Onuche, F. G. Okibe, V. O. Ajibola

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/25103

The present study investigated the biodegradation of Sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and Methyl paraben (MP) both in Shampoo and Hair dressing salon wastewater using bacteria isolated from sewage treatment sludge. The biodegradation was carried out according to the OECD Guideline for ready biodegradability and was monitored by standard spectrophotometric methods. The results obtained indicated that these compounds were degraded biotically by simple bacteria identified using a Microgen Kit for bacteria characterization. Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pnemoniae degraded 98.3% of the original SDS level in the Standard SDS solution on 7 days of incubation; Klebsiella planticola and Proteus vulgaris degraded 98.9% of the original SDS level for 10 days of incubation and 94.4% of MP on 13 days of incubation in the Shampoo solution;              Vibro cholera, Pseudomonas beteli and Escherichia coli degraded 98.1% of the initial SDS level on 5 days of incubation and 90.5% of the initial MP level on 4 days of incubation;  Pseudomonas aeuroginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus degraded 92.0% of the MP level in the standard MP solution on 7 days of incubation while the inoculum control was found to contain Pseudomonas aeuroginosa Salmonella typhi. In conclusion, the results of this study suggested that this method of biodegradation of surfactant is cost effective and using bacteria as a biodegradation agent is environmently friendly.

Open Access Original Research Article

Coordination Compounds of Nickel-Nicotinate with Some Acid Amides

Mavluda Ruzmetovna Ibragimova

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/25856

Complexes of Nickel-Nicotinate with some acid amides are synthesized aiming to vary the composition and the individual properties of the compounds obtained through coordination of the nicotinate group to acetamide, carbomide, thiocarbomide and nicotinamide. The coordination of the organic ligands, the environment of the central ion and thermal behavior of the synthesized compounds are elucidated by vibrational spectroscopy and thermal analysis. The comparative consideration of the relative intensities and the spatial structures of Nickel-Nicotinate, and the complexes synthesized shows that the new coordination compounds differ from each other and the original components as they have individual crystal lattices. Electronic spectra of the diffuse reflection of the synthesized compounds have shown that coordination compounds of divalent Nickel have an octahedral geometry. It is experimentally verified that the compounds synthesized can be used as cotton growth stimulators.

Open Access Original Research Article

Thieno[2,3-d]Pyrimidine-4-Ones. Part 5.# Hydrogen Chloride Promoted Synthesis of 2-Substituted Thieno[2,3-d]Pyrimidine-4-Ones and their Structural Investigations

D. Kh. Akramov, B. B. Zhurayev, B. A. Urakov, B. Zh. Elmuradov

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/24983

Synthesis of some novel 2-substituted thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine-4-ones have been studied. It was found that in this case the 2-amino-4,5-dimethylthiophene carboxamide (1) can serve effective synthone for the synthesis 2-aryl-5,6-dimethyl-3,4-dihydrothieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine-4-ones (3-13).  Interaction of amide 1 with substituted aromatic aldehydes in the presence of concentrated hydrochloric acid leads to the formation of compounds 3-13. It was impossible to isolate intermediates (2), substances with asymmetric carbon atom in position 2. It was revealed that intermediates 2 by oxidation on air easily turn into 2-arylthieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine-4-ones. The structure of synthesized compounds was confirmed by IR- and 1H NMR-spectroscopy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Removal of Antimony (V) from Aqueous Solution by Iron-based Adsorbents

Yongchao Li, Fei Zhang, Xiaoxian Hu, Bozhi Ren

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/25366

Antimony pollution has attracted increasing attention for its toxicity. In this study, iron oxide, copper oxide and Fe-Cu binary oxide were synthesized by chemical precipitation/co-precipitation method and investigated using XRD, SEM and FTIR characterizations. Then Sb(V) removal from water by different adsorbents was evaluated. Moreover, the effect of solution pH and initial adsorbents dose was systematically investigated. It was found that removal capacity of kaolinite, aluminum oxide and MWCNTs was poor. However, Sb(V) adsorption on iron oxide and copper oxide was rapid and followed a pseudo-second-order rate law. The equilibrium adsorption capacity increased with the increasing of adsorbent dosage. Especially, when pH <5.0, the removal percentage of Sb(V) by iron oxide sharply increased. Sb(V) uptake by Fe-Cu binary oxide was better than both iron oxide and copper oxide. FTIR analysis confirmed the presence of active -OH and dynamic analysis indicated that chemical adsorption was dominant mechanism for Sb(V) adsorption. Above all, the production process of iron-based adsorbents was simple and they possessed high adsorption ability for Sb(V), Therefore, iron oxide and Fe-Cu binary oxide were promising adsorbents for antimony removal from contaminated water.

Open Access Original Research Article

Some Nutritive and Antifungal Properties of Citrus sinensis (Sweet Orange) Peels and Seeds

Anthony Cemaluk C. Egbuonu, Chinwendu C. Amadi

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/25647

Introduction: Citrus sinensis (sweet orange) fruit is widely consumed the world over for its sweet juice. The peels and seeds may have some nutrients and antifungal properties but are essentially discarded with attendant waste generation.

Aim: The study evaluated some nutritive and antifungal properties of the peels and seeds of Linnaeus osbeck variety of Citrus sinensis (sweet orange) fruits purchased from Eke-Okigwe market in Imo state, Nigeria.

Study Design: The peels and seeds were respectively investigated for some minerals and vitamins content and for activity against some fungi.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the Department of Biochemistry, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike, Nigeria between May and August, 2015.

Methodology: The minerals and vitamins content in the respective sample flour and the antifungal activity of the respective sample crude ethanol (95%) and water extracts were determined by standard methods. Each extract (100 mg/ml) was tested against two fungi – Candida albicans and Aspergillus flavus.

Results: Results showed that the vitamins content of the orange peels and seeds respectively for vitamin A (IU) (85.71±0.63, 22.51±18.04) was highest followed by ascorbic acid (mg/100 g) (12.91±1.02, 7.04±1.76). The content of the other determined vitamins in the samples was low (0.09±0.00 to 0.81±0.01). The minerals (mg/100 g) in the peels were higher than that in the seeds. The calcium content in the peels (49.05±26.24) was highest followed by magnesium (41.83±5.59), sodium (19.44±1.58) and potassium (14.90±32.94). The ethanol extracts of the peels and seeds showed activity (mm) against the tested fungi (Candida albicans and Aspergillus flavus). However, the activity of the aqueous extract of the peels against Candida albicans and Aspergillus flavus respectively (12.33±1.15, 6.67±0.58) was higher (p<0.05) than that of the seeds (7.00±1.00, 0.00±0.00). The observations, aside the difference in the riboflavin and thiamine content and the activity elicited by the ethanol extracts of the peels and seeds, were significant (p<0.05).

Conclusion: The sweet orange peels could be a better source than the seeds for these nutrients, hence may offer higher nutrient benefits while ethanol may be preferred solvent to water for extracting the active phytochemicals in the samples. The higher nutrient mix in the peels probably accounted for the higher antifungal activity of the peels extracts against the tested fungi. The study provides basis for exploiting these sweet orange fruit wastes in diets and drugs, warranting further studies to harness the present findings.