Open Access Original Research Article

Matter Transfer in Liquid-solid Extraction of Democratic Republic of Congo Gourd Seeds Oils by “Kunyima Method”

A. B. Kunyima, H. M. Kaseya, S. N. Lusamba, P. K. Kunyima

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2018/44918

Background: The Democratic Republic of Congo has a very rich and diversified vegetable patrimony with known therapeutic properties needing only appropriate technology to deal with the extraction process of oils or active principles. This vegetable patrimony is capable to cure incurable diseases for modern medicine such as VIH, some cancers, diabetes, and so forth. So the interest, at first sight, has been brought on oils extraction of gourd seeds. These are widespread in all provinces of the country and are reputed to have excellent cure properties against prostate, world true calamity for men millions life. They prevent also diabetes, cardiac fits, cerebral vascular accident, liver complaints, menopause symptoms and so forth.

Aim and Objective: In this paper, the kinetic study of oil transfer from liquid- solid extraction has been undertaken in view of the phenomenon uptake to make possible home technology of reactors sizing, nowadays absent in underdeveloped countries.

Methodology: The experiments have been performed in dilute medium (petroleum ether) for a better understanding of the quantitative comparison. The liquid- solid extraction concerned here is the soxhlet extraction of oil from Gourd seeds. The figures have been plotted by means of Origin 8 program.

Results: Experimental results hereby discussed seem satisfactory and describe perfectly the proposed model. The proposed calculations have taken into account the combination of solubilisation and diffusion of matter molecules. The kinetic foundation of oil extraction and the sizing of extraction reactors are set together in KUNYIMA Method.

The extraction kinetic study of gourd seeds oil has been successfully performed in dilute solution where the linearity at more than 98% at exactly 98.8% between  and time expressed in hours was pointed out. The model was valid and the kinetic constant calculated.

Conclusion: KUNYIMA Method consists of the best uptake of the phenomenon, in expressing it in a suitable mathematical model to determine its velocity through its kinetic constant before sizing the experimentation reactor. The reactor volume depends on both the sizing factor and the desired volumic debit. This last parameter depends strongly on kinetic constant and conversion degree. The interest is emphasised of course for the moment on medicinal plants, but the method can cover any other similar field.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Pure and Ag-Doped TiO2 Thin Films Deposited by Field Assisted Spray Pyrolysis

Arishi, Jennifer Ifeoma, Ozuomba, Jude

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2018/43904

This paper reports the structural and optical properties of Undoped TiO2 and 5% Ag-doped TiO2 nanoparticles under visible- light irradiation. These films were synthesised using Electrohydrodynamic Spray Pyrolysis Technique, deposited at 250°C and later annealed at 400°C few minutes. The films were characterised by Surface Profilnometry, Ultraviolet – Visible light Spectroscopy (UV-Vis Spectroscopy), Optical Microscope and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The result from surface profilometry showed that the thickness of all the samples is thin films. XRD results showed that all the films have crystalline nature of TiO2 and annealed films result in an increase of crystallinity. The crystal phase observed was trigonal for both TiO2 and 5% Ag doped TiO2. The unannealed Undoped TiO2 exhibited low absorbance within the visible spectrum but increases as we dope with 5% Ag-doped TiO2 and effect of annealing increases the absorbance. Extinction coefficient increases within the visible region as we doped and thermal annealing also increases its effect within the visible region. The study of the microstructural properties using Optical Microscopy showed an increase in the hardness of the film for annealed films and they have micro-grains that are closely packed compared to unannealed samples. The direct band-gap for unannealed films range from 4.70 eV- 3.10 eV while annealed films was between 3.20 eV and 2.80 eV. Doped Annealed films showed reduced band-gap.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Heavy Metals in Soil and Maize Grown around Namungo Gold Mine in Ruangwa District, Lindi Region in Tanzania Using X-ray Fluorescence

Yusuf I. Koleleni, Shaban A. Mbike

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2018/44976

Soils and food crops were collected from three sample villages of Chibula, Chingumbwa and Ligunje which are located nearby the Namungo gold mine. The samples of both maize and soil were prepared and analysed using Energy Dispersive X-rays Fluorescence (EDXRF) with the objective of investigating the elemental concentration levels. Most of the elements in both soil and maize were detected with high concentration levels. The results showed that Maize were accumulated with mean range concentrations of; 870.3-1296.5 mg/kg for Cd, 23.2-24.0 mg/kg for Pb, 1.3-30.7 mg/kg for Hg,1.2-4.9 mg/kg for Cu, 39.8-115.3 mg/kg for V, 402.6-1964.8 mg/kg for Fe, and 8.6-20.1 mg/kg for U respectively. On the other hand, mean range concentrations of metal elements detected in the soil were 3.6-20.3 mg/kg for Pb,2771.6-5969.6 mg/kg for U, 3.4-19.5 mg/kg for Hg, 0.6-8.2 mg/kg for Se, 20.9-830.4mg/kg for As, 49.6-169.2 mg/kg for Cu and192.2-858.8 mg/kg for V. The correlation matrix shows that most the elements are the result of mining activities which might be detrimental to the health of the consumers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical and Elemental Analysis of Sida corymbosa (Broom Weed or Wire Weed) Leaf and Root Extracts

C. C. Dike, F. C. Ezeonu, H. C. C. Maduka, E. N. Ezeokafor

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2018/44987

Aim: To investigate if Sida corymbosa leaf and root ethanolic extracts have some medicinal values and whether they can be used as a supplement to some mineral elements.

Study Design: This work was designed to identify the presence of some phytochemicals and mineral elements in leaf and root samples of the plant  and to determine which samples contain more of the above mentioned parameters.

Place and Duration of Study: This work took place at the Department of Human Biochemistry Research Laboratory, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus and Spring Board. Research Laboratory, Awka, Anambra State. The duration of study is eight weeks.

Methodology: Qualitative phytochemical screening was done by colour identification method while the quantitative phytochemical analysis was done using the gas chromatographic method. Elemental analysis was done using Atomic absorption spectrophotometric method

Results: It was observed that the extracts contained more of flavonoids which include; epicatechin, kaempferol, catechin, naringin and rutin (Table 1). Tannin level was observed to be significantly higher (42.546 ±3.59,  P<0.05) in aqueous root than ethanolic root, aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts. Phenol and epicateclum were higher in aqueous and ethanolic root and leaf extracts (7.053 and 1.329 mg/ml). The results of mineral elements analyzed showed that the amount of Na+, Fe2+, CU2+, SO2- and Cl- were significantly higher in the leaves than the roots. (P<0.05). Highest extraction yield was also witnessed in ethanolic leaf extract (19.57+0.32) than other extracts.

Conclusion: Sida corymbosa leaves and roots have many medicinal values as is claimed    claimed by some traditional medicine practitioners. The plant leaf and root extracts may have some antioxidants and anti malaria properties since it contained many flavonoids and alkaloids The plant leaves may serve as a better supplement to Na+, Fe2+, CU2+, Mn-, CO2+, SO42- and Cl- than the root.

Open Access Original Research Article

Spectral Studies of Eriochrome Black T in Cationic Surfactants

Khaled Edbey, Ashraf El-Hashani, Abdelhadi Benhmid, Kamal Ghwel, Mohamed Benamer

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2018/44312

The critical micelle concentration (CMC) for a series of cationic surfactants N-Alkyltrimethylammonium i.e. (CnTAC, n=12, 14, 16, 18) have been determined by electrical conductivity and surface tension methods. The interaction of anionic dye Eriochrome Black T (EBT) with cetyl-trimethylammonium chloride and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) has been investigated spectrophotometrically. The binding constant (Kb) and the surface excess (Γ) were calculated. The results show that with increasing the surfactants alkyl chain lengths, CMC and minimum area (Amin) decreases, while the surface excess concentrations increase. It has been found that the binding constant of CPC is double - fold that than of the binding constant of cetyl-trimethylammonium chloride (C16TAC).