Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Aluminium Metal Dosage on Surface Area, Crystallinity and Energy Band Gap of ZnO Nanostructure and Crystalline Size

O. Ojo Mathew, Aloba Isaac Oladele, Hauwa Sidi Aliyu, Salamatu Aliyu Tukur

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2018/28204

ZnO nanocrystalline material embedded with different aluminum metal (Al) dosage was successfully prepared using the microwave synthetic technique and employing chitosan as capping agent. Temperature and power effects were monitored for best crystallinity outcome during synthetic operation with power impacting more effect on the nanocrystallinity of the ZnO as compared to the temperature. The surface area of the ZnO was observed to increase with increase in the metal dose while energy band gap decreased drastically before finally attaining a stable energy where further increment of metal was found to have no effect on the band gap of the semiconductor ZnO. Therefore for further research, this material is considered interesting in areas such as photode-gradation, adsorption study, heavy metal detection and coating.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Anti-microbial Action of Zero Valent Iron Nanoparticle Synthesized by Aspilia pluriseta Extracts

A. O. Nyabola, P. G. Kareru, E. S. Madivoli, E. G. Maina, I. S. Wanakai

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2018/45799

Antimicrobial resistance has proved to be a great burden to the current health care system as more potent drugs are required to combat this global challenge. Due to this problem there was need to explore new ways that would eradicate drug resistance hence the need to utilize the potential of metallic nanoparticles as a new alternative to combat resistance. In this study, focus was on the synthesis of Feo NPs using Aspilia pluriseta aqueous extracts, its characterization and antimicrobial activities against gram (+) and gram (-) microorganisms. Preliminary phytochemical screening was carried out to test for presence of secondary metabolites; phenol, flavonoid, phytosterol, carbohydrate, tannin, saponin, glycoside and terpenoid, the results tested positive test for all the metabolites. Folin-Ciocalteu method and aluminium chloride method respectively, were used to quantify amount of phenolic 31.45 ±0.017 milligram per gram and flavonoid 7.223 ±0.081 milligram per gram. Characterization of zero valent iron oxide NPs was achieved using UV-visible spectrophotometer, FT-IR, XRD and XRF. UV-Vis spectrophotometer displayed a peak at 346 nm. Fourier-transform infrared spectra displayed existence of functional groups such as OH, C-O and C-C that aids in the formation of NPs. XRD indicated the presence of peaks at 16.06° and 43.73°.XRF data displayed that NPs contained Fe 31.58%, MgO 12.02%, Al2O3 1.883%, SiO2 13.84%, P2O5 11.14%, K2O 4.699% and CaO 1.522% of respective oxides. This therefore confirmed the presence of secondary metabolites in Aspilia pluriseta aqueous extracts which aids formation of iron NPs. Finally, the antimicrobial activity was determined against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis which exhibited significant zones of inhibition.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Pharmaceutical Effluent on the Growth of Crops in Nigeria

Damilola Tope Ogundele, Afees Adebayo Oladejo, Christiana Oreoluwa Oke

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2018/42634

Environmental pollution constitutes a great health hazard to human, animals and plants with local, regional and global implications. Pollution has adverse effects on land, water and its biotic and abiotic components. Effluents from industries are normally considered as the main industrial pollutants containing organic and inorganic compounds.

This experiment was conducted under laboratory condition to investigate the effect of different heavy metals in pharmaceutical effluent on germination and growth of okro (Abelmoschus esculentus) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) seed. The effect of these effluents was compared with control water. The soil on which the plants were grown was analysed. A control sample watered with de-ionised water was also analysed. The plant samples were divided into stem, root and leaf prior to digestion and analysed. The soil and plant samples were digested by wet-oxidation technique and analysed for heavy metals by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). Lead, Cadmium, Chromium, Zinc, Copper, Nickel and Iron concentrations were found in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and okro (Abelmoschus esculentus) plants watered with different concentrations of pharmaceutical effluent. The results stated that the industrial effluents significantly affect germination; root, stem and shoot elongation of the investigated crops with the highest concentration found in the root of the investigated plants when compared to the stem and leaf. Hence, it can be concluded that effluents from pharmaceutical companies is toxic to life.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis and Evaluation of Iron (III)-Red Onion Skin Extract Azo Complexes as Pigments for Surface Coatings in Oilfield Environment

A. A. Akaho, U. J. Chukwu, O. Akaranta

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2018/45361

Red Onion skin extract (ROSE) -azo compound of 2-aminobenzoic acid and Iron (III) metal complex of the azo compound (Fe-ABmROSE) were synthesized and characterized using FT-IR spectroscopy, UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy and Scanning electron microscopy. The IR Spectra showed the values of N=N- stretching frequency of 1496.81cm-1 at 1500 cm-1 in ABmROSE. This stretching frequency is absent in the Fe-ABmROSE. This is an indication of the involvement of the N=N- bond in coordination to the metal. ABmROSE shows an absorption maximum at 560.1 nm. This band was shifted to 310 nm in Fe-ABmROSE. This suggests an interaction between the Fe and the azo compound.

Open Access Original Research Article

Theoretical Investigation on Biological Activity of Phenacetin and Its Derivatives via DFT and Docking Approach

Oyebamiji, Abel Kolawole, Adeleke, Babatunde Benjamin

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2018/46237

The actions of Phenacetin (N-(4-Ethoxyphenyl) acetamide) on the sensory tracts of the spinal cord has exposed its biological importance. It has been observed to be a non-opioid analgesic. The derivatives of Phenacetin were calculated using quantum chemical calculation and the descriptors (EHOMO, ELUMO, Band gap, LogP, Polar Surface Area (PSA), polarizability, HBA, HBD) that described the anti-pain activity of the studied compounds were obtained. In this work, several derivatives of phenacetin were studied with the use of density functional theory and its inhibiting effect on pain cell line (PDB ID: 5bqh) was observed through docking study. Compounds PA1 and PA5 were studied to inhibit more effectively than phenacetin, paracetamol and other studied derivatives.