Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis and Characterization of Nano-Strontium Oxide (SrO) Using Erzincan Cimin Grape (Vitis vinifera, Cimin)

Azize Alayli Gungor, Hayrunnisa Nadaroglu, Demet Demirci Gultekin

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2019/v26i330092

Aims: Synthesis of Strontium oxide (SrO) is very remarkable for its applications in electrodes for gas sensors, lithium-ion batteries, solar cells, doped dye-sensitive solar cells, transistors, catalyst supports, super capacitors and semiconductors. This study aims to synthesize SrO nanoparticles using a new method, as they will find important and specific uses.

Experimental Design: Synthesis of SrO nanoparticles (NPs) was planned to be obtained by bio-reduction method using the plant extract of Erzincan Cimin grape (Vitis vinifera, Cimin).

Place and Duration of Study: The experimental steps of the study were carried out in the laboratories of Atatürk University, Erzurum Vocational College, Department of Chemical and Chemical Processing Technologies.

Methodology: In this study, the synthesis of SrO NPs was made by using aqueous extract of Erzincan Cimin grape (Vitis vinifera, Cimin). Biosynthesis medium containing 0.1 M Sr(NO3)2 was added to Cimin grape extract to synthesize SrO NPs.

Results: The structural characterization of the SrO NPs that were obtained as a result of the reaction was analyzed using SEM, EDAX and FTIR techniques. Using the X-ray diffraction pattern in the study, the mean particle size was calculated to be 28.6 nm. SEM analysis revealed that particles having a porous nanostructure in 20-50 nm of size were synthesized. It was determined that the maximum absorbance of SrO nanoparticles was at 203 nm. From the experimental data, it was determined that for SrO nanoparticles, the optimum synthesis rate was reached at 90 minutes, 40°C and pH 8.

Conclusion: The newly synthesized nanomaterial is expected to find applications in many different areas thanks to its physical and chemical properties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Formulation of Paint and Detergent with Pelargonium citrosum & Rosmarinus officinalis Extracts as Musca domestica Repellent Agent

Njiema Gitaari, Patrick Kareru, Mercy Githua

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2019/v26i330093

Use of botanical environmentally friendly and biodegradable insect repellants as opposed to chemical insecticides is increasingly becoming important as an alternative method of insect control. Housefly (Musca domestica L.) has potential of transmitting pathogen causing diseases such as typhoid, cholera, bacillary dysentery, tuberculosis, anthrax, ophthalmia, and parasitic worms. Essential oils derived from aromatic plants have exhibited biological properties and can be used to prevent and treat human diseases. The aim of this study was to formulate the housefly repellent paint and detergent. Extraction of essential oils was by hydro-distillation. Condensed oil extracts were collected in n-hexane and insect behavioral response tested using adult houseflies (Musca domestica L.). N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) was used as the positive control and acetone as the negative control. The formulated products showed higher repellent activities against the housefly. When 1% (V/V %) insect repellent detergent and paint were compared, the housefly repellent activities occurred at 67±2.64 for detergent and 76±1.34 for the paint. When 3% (V/V%) insect repellent detergent and paint were compared, the housefly repellent activities occurred at 81±1.77 for detergent and 84±2.1 for the paint for outdoor and indoor field trials which were carried out for eight hours each day for two days. The results provide scientific rationale for traditional use of R. officinalis oil and Pelargonium citrosum in control of housefly and other common insects in the household.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis and Structural-reactivity Studies of Bifunctional MCT/SES (Monochlorotriazine/ Sulphatoethylsulphone) Azo Reactive Disperse Dyes Applied to Wool and Polyester Fabric

Ishegbe Joyce Eko, Bello Kasali Ademola, Nkeonye Peter Obinna, A. A. Kogo

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2019/v26i330094

Reactive disperse dyes containing monochlorotriazine/sulphatoethylsulphone reactive moieties were synthesized by condensing aniline with cyanuric chloride and further reacting it with a series of monoazo dyes obtained by diazotising 1-aminobenzene-4-β-sulphatoethylsulphone and coupling with various substituted 2-amino-4-phenylthiazole derivatives. The dyeing performance of the dyes was evaluated on polyester and wool fabrics. The dyes obtained gave various shades ranging from reddish to bright red colours. They had good depth and good levelling properties. They dyed fabrics showed moderate to good light fastness properties and very good to excellent fastness to washing and perspiration. The dye bath exhaustion on the polyester and wool fabrics were found to be very good and their fixation values were moderate.

Open Access Original Research Article

Methanolic Synthesis of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) from Waste Materials

Abatyough Terungwa Michael, V. O. Ajibola, E. B. Agbaji, James Yusuf

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2019/v26i330095

Waste materials (carbide slurry and waste cooking oil) were explored in esterification and transesterification reactions as a viable alternative to a sustainable transport fuel production. The Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques showed that the prepared calcium oxide had improved basic sites, calcium content and surface morphology respectively. Reduced glycerol and free fatty acids enhanced mass transfer of moieties. Alkali was supported on the calcium oxide as a bimetallic catalyst. Biodiesel prepared from the esterified high FFA oils using prepared NaOH/CaO catalyst gave good quality yield and it compared favorably with other catalysts obtaining 92.2 ± 0.31% with the prepared catalyst, 90.2 ±0.57 with ACl3 and 89.7± 0.16 with NaOH. The reusability of the prepared NaOH/CaO catalyst gave an appreciable yield of 74.5% on the fourth reaction cycle.

Open Access Original Research Article

Equilibrium Adsorption Studies of Methylene Blue onto Caesalpinia pulcherrima Husk-based Activated Carbon

A. A. Nuhu, I. C. P. Omali, C. O. Clifford

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2019/v26i330096

Activated carbon was prepared from Caesalpinia pulcherrima husk (CPH) by chemical activation method using phosphoric acid as an activating agent.  The activated sample was characterized based on the physical properties.  The experimental data were fitted to Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin models. The coefficient of determination for Langmuir model R2 = 0.967 was higher compared to Freundlich and Temkin showing monolayer adsorption, and also established that the adsorption of methylene onto CPH based activated carbon can be best described by the Langmuir isotherm model. The energy of adsorption (806.2 kJ/mol) obtained from this model shows clearly that the process is chemisorption. It was observed that the adsorption characteristic indicates a rapid uptake of the adsorbate; the optimum contact time for the adsorption of Methylene blue onto the prepared carbon was 60 minutes. This evidence also points to chemisorption process. These results demonstrate that the carbon derived from CPH can be used as an efficient adsorbent for the adsorption of Methylene blue.