Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Anions and Heavy Metals in Sediments from River Sio, Busia County, Kenya

K. O. Ondoo, J. K. Kiptoo, A. O. Onditi, S. M. Shivaji, J. K. Ogilo

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2019/v27i230108

Agricultural activities, discharge of raw sewage into farms and the rise in urbanization have greatly contributed to soil pollution. During the rainy season, surface runoff from farms find their way into water bodies and deposits these contaminants into Rivers and Lakes which poses a threat to both aquatic and terrestrial organisms that depend on that water source. The objective of this research was to determine the level of anions and heavy metals from sediments in River Sio, Busia County, Kenya. Five sediment samples were taken from five sampling points and the levels of anions and heavy metals in them determined. Anions were determined using Shimadzu 1800 UV/visible spectrophotometer while heavy metals were determined using Shimadzu 6200 flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). Copper, lead and nickel were above the allowed WHO limits while cadmium was below detection limit. The levels of nitrates, phosphates and chlorides were higher during the wet season due to surface runoff that carried these nutrients from the farms and deposited them on the bottom of the River. The levels of heavy metals were high during the dry season due to evaporation of water from the River, leading to an increase in the analyte concentration during the dry season. High levels of copper and nickel in the sediments points to the use of herbicides and pesticides in farming and washing of vehicles and motorcycles on the banks of the River. According to Igeo nickel showed moderate pollution during the dry season. The contamination factor for lead was very high during the dry season, while pollution load index confirmed pollution due to anthropogenic activities in sampling sites 1 – 4 during the dry season and no pollution due to anthropogenic activities during the wet season.  The study recommends reduced use of inorganic fertilizers in order to save the River from the danger of eutrophication. Excessive use of agrochemicals such as herbicides and pesticides should be discouraged. In addition, pesticide leaching and the level of microbes in soil and sediments should be considered for further research

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Heavy Organics Composition on Wax Properties and Flow Behavior of Waxy Crude Oils

W. I. Eke, O. Achugasim, S. E. Ofordile, J. A. Ajienka, O. Akaranta

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2019/v27i230109

Paraffinic crude oils are desirable because of their high content of saturated hydrocarbons but may present handling challenges due to crystallization of high molecular weight paraffin at low temperatures. The prediction of wax properties and behavior of waxy crude oil is important in order to adopt appropriate mitigative measures to forestall flow assurance problems associated with wax crystallization and deposition. Accurate predictive models are limited mainly by the sheer complexity of crude oil composition. Result of analysis of saturates, aromatics, resins and asphaltene content of crude oils (SARA) has been used as a simple tool to predict and interpret crude oil properties and behavior but has been found inadequate in predicting wax instability. In this paper, we report on the use of SARA analysis and paraffin distribution data to interpret the wax properties and flow behavior of Niger-Delta crude oils. The crude oil properties determined include wax content, asphaltene and resin content by gravimetry, pour point, wax appearance temperature by cross-polarized microscopy and paraffin carbon number distribution of whole oil and wax precipitate by GC-FID. Asphaltene and resin content were found to influence the oil pour point, while saturates content, paraffin carbon number of crystallizing waxes and wax content control its low-temperature flow properties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hybrid Precipitated Calcium Carbonate Containing Wood Flour for Paper Applications – A Comparative Handsheet Study

Klaus Dölle, Kilian F. Baumgartner, Neil F. Goodman, Alexander Klitsiotisoris

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2019/v27i230110

The main objective of this paper handsheet study is to investigate if a hybrid filler material containing wood flour and precipitated calcium carbonate can replace and/or supplement commercially available ground calcium carbonate and precipitated calcium carbonate mineral filler material for papermaking. The handsheet study contains 25 different furnish mixtures. Four different types of wood flour were used to manufacture the hybrid filler material, including two wood flour blends with a strengthening agent. All handsheet were manufactured with an 80% harwood and 20% softwood mix. The filler content varied between 10, 15 and 20%. The study showed that the hybrid filler material achieved a retention of up to 92.68% as well as a higher caliper of up to 208 μm compared to commercial ground and precipitated calcium carbonate of 120.4 μm and 145.6 μm respectively. Tensile and tear strength did not show an improvement. Elongation and tensile energy absorption did improve of up to 30% with the strength additive containing hybrid filler material. Opacity was improved of up to 10% with the hybrid filler material. Brightness and color values were lower due to the natural brow color of the wood flower material.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation of Heavy Metal (Lead) Removal from Aqueous Solution by Using Advanced Oxidation Process (Fenton)

Fahimeh Moghadam, Asma Ghasemi Pourafshar

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2019/v27i230111

Background and Aim: Undoubtedly, controlling the maximum entry of heavy metals into the food is one of the measures which should be taken into account in order to maintain the food consumers' health and achieve the food safety. The sensitivity and importance of this issue are doubled due to the irreparable, acute and chronic complications of heavy metals which are classified according to the effects on the nervous system until the carcinogenesis in the human body. On the other hand, this issue is significantly important since these metals differently enter to crops such as tea, water, and rice and generally the food and beverage that are widely consumed. Therefore, the aim of this study is to remove heavy lead metal from aqueous solution by Fenton method. This study is an experimental study. The samples are synthesized in a collection of laboratories at the Faculty of Health, and the pH parameters, contact time and lead elimination rate and the optimal Fenton ratio are investigated. Results are analyzed using SPSS software and Charts are plotted by excel. The results showed that the best pH for removal of lead 5 and its best concentration is 30 mg/ L, and the optimal Fenton ratio is 1 to 5, as well as the best contact time for removal of lead from aqueous media for 10 minutes. The present study showed that the pH factor, contact time, Fenton concentration and lead in all four were effective in removing lead from aquatic solution.

Open Access Review Article

A Review on Avocado Seed: Functionality, Composition, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties

Tassew Belete Bahru, Zinabwa Hailu Tadele, Eyasu Gebrie Ajebe

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2019/v27i230112

The seed of avocado is considered as one of the non-edible part of the fruit, which are usually discarded as residues and can cause ecological problems. Exploring the possible dietary and therapeutic potentials of especially such underutilized wastes will in addition reduce the possible environmental waste burden. The objectives of this review article is to alert the functionality, chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of avocado seed for its use as food and justification for its medicinal use. The composition like proximate (protein, fat, ash, moisture, fiber and carbohydreate), minerals (Ca, Zn, K, Na, P, Fe, Cu, Pb and Co), phytochemicals (Flavinoid, Tanine, Saponine, Total phenolics, Antioxidnt capacity, Oxalates, Phytates, Alkaloids) and Vitamins (A, B1, B2, B3, C and E) were reported to be present in the avocado seed in different proportions. Some poisonous phytochemicals are present in fresh seeds of avocado and not in the dry seeds, hence recommended to dry the seeds before processing for consumption. Its biological activities such as antioxidant, antihypertensive, fungicidal, larvicidal, hypolipidemic, amoebicidal and giardicidal activities had reported. Therefore, it can be concluded that, the avocado seed is nutritionally valuable as the other parts of the plant based on the phytochemical and nutrients it constitutes. The consumption of avocado seed is recommendable since it has high nutritional contents that make it enough for possible dietary and ethno-medicinal use.