Open Access Original Research Article

Analyzes of Physico-chemical Parameters of Surface Waters from Ogunpa River, Ibadan, Nigeria

Ogungbile Peter, A. Akande John, Akintunde Emmanuel, O. Odekunle

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2019/v27i330113

Physico-chemical indices of waters from Ogunpa River were examined for locational differences; seasonal variation; and to know if gradient effect is associated with the pollution dynamics. Data obtained were analyzed and compared with WHO thresholds for those parameters in water. Test results gave the following mean values viz:-Total Suspended Solids (TSS) 226.81mg/L, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) 278.14 mg/L, Temperature (TºC) 27.18ºC, pH 7.57, Electrical Conductivity (EC) 191.28 µs/cm, Sulphate (SO42-) 0.03 mg/L, Phosphate (PO42-) 0.03 mg/L, Nitrate (NO3-) 0.02 mg/L, Chloride(Cl-)  0.03 mg/L, Total Hardness (TH) 185.71mg/L, Alkalinity (Alk) 180.14 mg/L, Dissolved Oxygen (DO) 8.60 mg/L, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) 0.59 mg/L and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) 109.89 mg/L. Variation arising from locations and seasonal effects were analyzed using ANOVA at P<0.05 and the outcome presented no seasonal variation in all the parameters except for Cl-, TH, Alk, and COD. Also no significant variation between the test locations except for PO42 and BOD. When compared to WHO recommended limits, values obtained were generally lower except for TH and COD that were above. It is concluded that  surface waters from Ogunpa River, at the time of study, is within the recommended WHO values for normal survival and living of aquatic organisms.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Red Onion Skin Extract as Inhibitor for Gum Formation in Gas Condensates

T. Bamidele, A. Iwundu, W. I. Eke, O. Joel, O. Akaranta

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2019/v27i330114

In the upstream sector, gum in condensate causes significant erosion in value worth millions of dollars per annum and increases operational cost due to high injection concentration of conventional antioxidants. Phenolic compounds are commonly used at low concentrations in the downstream sector to inhibit gum formation in refined petroleum products. However, gum inhibition in condensates, in the upstream sector, requires high concentrations of phenolic antioxidant. Therefore, there is need for cheaper and more effective antioxidants for gas condensates. The present study investigates the use of Red Onion Skin Extract (ROSE) as a natural inhibitor for gum formation in condensate based on ASTM D381. Treatments with ethanolic extracts of red onion skin were carried out on seven gas condensate samples with gum formation tendency.  At a dosage of 200ppm red onion skin extract caused a reduction of 17.4% to 99.6% in washed gum content of the condensate samples. The performance of ROSE was comparable to, and in some condensates better than, commercially available catechol. The result obtained using ROSE highlights the need to explore the commercial viability of this application in oil & gas upstream operations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Fluoride Distribution in Aquatic Environment in Vicinity of Aluminum Industry and Its Correlation with Rainwater Chemistry and Weather Parameter: A Case Study of Renukoot, District Sonbhadra, Uttar Pradesh, India

Shishu Pal Singh, Shivraj Singh, Rajesh Kumar

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2019/v27i330115

Fluorine is a highly reactive element and readily hydrolyzes to form hydrogen fluoride and oxygen. Hydrogen fluoride reacts with many materials both in the vapor phase and in aerosols. Fluorides are naturally-occurring components of rocks and soil and are also found in air, water, plants, and animals. Fluorine gas pollutes the atmospheric environment originating from aluminium smelting plant operating at Renukoot, district Shonbhadra. Volcanic emissions also emit hydrogen fluoride.  A detailed investigation undertaken during 2008-2012 to objective fluoride Distribution in Aquatic Environment in Vicinity of Aluminum Industry and its Correlation with Rainwater Chemistry and Weather Parameter. For this investigation Collect 57 rainwater samples in rainy season in pre-cleaned and sterilized polyethylene bottles of two litre capacities from roof of the local society of Hindustan Aluminum Company Renukoot, district Sonbhadra. The collected samples were analyzed for pH, Electrical Conductivity, Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Carbonates, Bicarbonates, Chlorine, Sulphate, Fluoride, Residual Sodium Carbonates, and Sodium Adsorption Ratio with standard procedures.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Heavy Metals Profile in Different Brands of Infant Food Nutrition

Ogochukwu Augustina Onuorah, Rufus Sha'ato, Fina Okeke, Adekola Omololu Atanda, Agbele Idowu Elijah, Adegoke Abiodun Adebimpe, Adeniyi Adebayo Kunle

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2019/v27i330116

The concentrations of five essential metals in six selected (NAN, Cowbell, MY BOY, CERELAC, FRISO GOLD and NUTREND) infant formulae sold in Makurdi metropolis, were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Data collected were subjected to Analysis of Variance using SPSS 24 statistical software package. Significant differences in means were separated using Duncan Multiple Range Test. There was significant difference in the levels of the trace metals in the different brands of infant formula milk. The results of the toxic trace metals show that Cr has the highest concentration of 6.175 ±0.001 mg/kg (Cowbell), when compared to other toxic trace metals analyzed. Milk based infant formula showed copper concentration ranged from 2.55±0.001– 6.357±0.001mg/kg, which was higher than the provisional tolerable daily intake of copper that is 3 mg/kg. Chromium, Copper, Manganese and lead were detected in the six brands of infant formula milk but they were below the limits set by World Health Organization (WHO). However, the intake levels of Cd in this study from these concentrations were below the WHO limits. These results validate and in some cases counter earlier reports on the composition of infant formula found in our local markets. Therefore, the concentrations of the studied elements were within the safe limits recommended by National Industrial Standard and the Institute of Medicine for foods but higher concentrations of trace metals in some brands of infant formulae above the recommended limit pose a risk of bioaccumulation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Selected Heavy Metals in Tobacco Tree Shrubs Growing around Dandora Dumpsite, Nairobi, Kenya

P. M. Kahara, J. Murungi, J. K. Kiptoo, G. Nyaga

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2019/v27i330117

Environmental pollution by heavy metals is presently a serious threat to public health. Despite the toxic contaminants contained in municipal waste, most of the dumpsites remain unregulated and uncontrolled. The objective of this study was to determine the levels of Pb, Cr and Cd in the leaves of tobacco tree plants growing around the dumpsite so as to assess their impact on the environment. The pseudo-total concentration of the metals in the soil was done so as to calculate the transfer factors.pH and total organic carbon (TOC) of the soil was also determined. Soil and plant samples were collected thrice from thirty two sampling sites along the off-loading path from the centre of Dandora dumpsite up to a distance of 700 m away from the centre at depth of 0-30cm (top soil).  Metal analysis was done using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS). Pb levels ranged from 7.58±0.34 to 16.57±0.79 µg/g in the washed leaves and 9.22±0.36 to 19.27±0.40 µg/g in the unwashed leaves. Cr levels ranged from 5.11±0.40 to 14.4±0.91 µg/g in the washed leaves and 5.01±0.45 to 15.50±0.40 µg/g in the unwashed leaves. While Cd levels ranged from 0.24±0.01 to 3.62 ±0.17 µg/g in the washed leaves and 0.37±0.02 to 3.68±0.25 µg/g in the unwashed leaves. All these levels were above World Health Organization recommended limits in plants of Pb (0.3 µg/g), Cr (3 µg/g) and Cd (0.2 µg/g). Pearson correlation of the levels in the plants with their concentrations in the soils gave significantly positive values. This suggest that high metal concentration in the soil leads to increased mobility and hence bioavailability. Results obtained therefore suggest that Dandora dumpsite is highly polluted and people should be discouraged from using waste from the dumpsite as manure.