Open Access Original Research Article

Cationic Photopolymerization by Polymeric Triphenyl Phosphonium Salts

Ideisan I. Abu-Abdoun

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2019/v27i430118

Phenacyl triphenylphosphonium and p-nitrobenzyl triphenylphosphonium polymer bound salts with SbF6- counter ions, have been synthesized and examined as polymeric photoinitiators for the cationic photopolymerization of epoxide monomers such as cyclohexene oxide and vinyl monomers such as N-vinyl carbazole and p-methyl styrene. The polymeric phosphonium salts utilized as photocatalysts and were found to be easy to handle and stable when stored far from normal light. Reaction of the nonpolymerizable epoxide compound trans-stilbene oxide with the polymeric phenacyl phosphonium was investigated in dichloromethane solvent and found to gives diphenyl acetaldehyde.

Open Access Original Research Article

Selective Alteration of the Root Morphology of Arabidopsis thaliana by Synthetic Anion Transporters (SATs)

Mohit B. Patel, Evan C. Garrad, Steven Korb, Saeedeh Negin, Michael R. Gokel, Sergey Sedinkin, Shanheng Yin, George W. Gokel

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2019/v27i430119

Aims: The aim of the study was to determine whether and to what extent any of a family of amphiphilic heptapeptide synthetic anion transporters (SATs) affected the growth or root morphology of Arabidopsis thaliana.

Study Design:  A. thaliana plants were grown from seedlings in PNS media in the absence or presence of one of 21 SATs.

Place and Duration of Study: Departments of Chemistry & Biochemistry, University of Missouri – St. Louis, 1 University Blvd., St. Louis, MO 63121 U. S. A. The study was conducted 2017-2018.

Methodology: Twenty one compounds of the form R2N-COCH2YCH2CO-(Aaa)3Pro(Aaa)3-O(CH2)6CH3 were prepared and studied. The amino acids included Ala, Gly, and Ser. R was normal alkyl having 6, 10, 12, or 18 carbons. Y was methylene, oxygen, sulfur, or absent. The PNS media was infused with various concentrations of the SAT and 21 plants in each group were allowed to grow for 11 days. Overall plant growth and root morphology were visualized and/or measured and the results recorded.

Results: A comparison of primary root length and lateral root number revealed that the greatest alterations in lateral root densities were observed for peptide sequences of the type GGGPSGS, whether or not serine was protected by t-butyl. Differences were also observed for these peptide sequences according to the identity of Y in the ~COCH2YCH2CO~ chain.

Conclusion: The presence of serine’s oxygen atoms on the C-terminal side of the heptapeptide interact with Cl¯ leading to a change in ion concentrations and alterations in primary root lengths and lateral root densities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Corrosion Mitigation of Gray Cast Iron and Aluminum in NaOH Using Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) Plant Extract

D. T. Oloruntoba, O. S. Adesina, O. F. Abraham, K. J. Akinluwade

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2019/v27i430120

This research focused on the corrosion behavior of gray cast iron and aluminum in alkaline medium (0.5 M NaOH) with and without inhibitor (water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes extract) of varying concentrations of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%. The corrosion rates of the metal samples were investigated using the weight loss and electrochemical methods alongside the formulation of a dispersant using readily available chemicals to develop a colloidal solution of the extract produced by hot water digestion of the water hyacinth plant leaves. The metallography tests of control samples as well as the most and least corroded samples were carried out using Optical Microscope (OM). The results revealed that the aluminum resulted in minimum corrosion rate of 0.000483 mg/mm2/yr with inhibitor efficiency of 98.93% obtained for sample A5 (25% extract from water hyacinth) while for the gray cast iron, a minimum corrosion rate of -4.4E-05 mg/mm2/yr with inhibitor efficiency of 566.6% obtained for sample C3 (15% extract from water hyacinth). The electrochemical result of aluminum showed increase in corrosion potential from -1.494 VAg/AgCl to -1.482 V Ag/AgCl and that of gray cast iron from -0.5436 VAg/AgCl to -0.2839 VAg/AgCl upon increase in inhibitor concentration. Therefore, the use of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)extract reduced the corrosion or dissolution rate of gray cast iron and aluminum in (NaOH) sodium hydroxide medium.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Levels of Heavy Metals, Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon and Total Hydrocarbon Content in Tympanotomus fuscatus and Sediment, Qua Iboe River, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

Edidiong E. Ikpe, Ifiok O. Ekwere, Etiowo G. Ukpong, James O. Effiong, Okon E. Okon

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2019/v27i430121

This study assesses the levels of heavy metals and  hydrocarbons in Tympanotomus fuscatus and the sediments of Qua Iboe River, Akwa Ibom State; the interest in the study area was due to the several industrial and oil exploration activities in the area. The heavy metals (HM) of interest were Pb, Cd, Cu, Se, Zn, As, Cr, Fe, Ni and Hg, determined using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy while Total Hydrocarbon Content (THC) and Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) were determined by the GC-FID method. Results obtained indicated that the heavy metal concentration in Tympanotomus fuscatus ranged as follows:  Pb (1.037 – 2.002 mg/kg), Cd (0.00 – 0.088 mg/kg), Cu (0.0037 – 10.01 mg/kg), Se (2.364 – 5.063 mg/kg), Zn (0.025 – 1.393 mg/kg), As (0.0113 – 0.355 mg/kg), Cr (1.075 – 3.055 mg/kg), Fe (2.384 – 10.022), Ni (0.045 – 1.223 mg/kg), Hg (0.037 – 1.003 mg/kg) while heavy metal concentration in sediments were: Pb (1.399 – 2.345 mg/kg), Cd (0.0267– 0.222 mg/kg), Cu (0.017 – 10.0197 mg/kg), Se (1.388 – 3.369 mg/kg), Zn (5.688 – 8.038 mg/kg), As (0.003 – 0.0317 mg/kg), Cr (0.0157 – 2.057 mg/kg), Fe (27.351 – 86.686), Ni (0.017 – 5.0413 mg/kg), Hg (0.06 – 1.53 mg/kg); generally, heavy metals levels were higher in dry season than in wet season. The levels of TPH ranged from 160.86 – 1081.52 mg/kg in Tympanotomus fuscatus and 175.97 – 3143.91 mg/kg in sediments; meanwhile, the concentration of TPH ranged from 728.47 – 2442.04 mg/kg in Tympanotomus fuscatus and 492.41 – 7186.25 mg/kg in sediments. Multiple correlation coefficient matrixes were carried out to ascertain the relationship between the pollutants concentration in the biota and sediments. Furthermore, predictive modeling of pollutant concentration in flesh and shell of Tympanotomus fuscatus was estimated. The results indicate that the amounts of HM, TPH and THC in some of the study sites were above the maximum permissible limit set by WHO and FMEnv; thus, pose health risk to humans.

Open Access Original Research Article

Corrosion Behavior of Welded Joints of X70 Pipeline Steel Produced by High-frequency Welding

Anatolii Klymenko, Svetlana Kovalenko, Vitalii Kuzmenko, Yurii Kovalenko

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2019/v27i430124

Corrosion behavior of welded joints of steel pipe category X70 produced by high-frequency welding, in different conditions, in which it is possible to initiate stress-corrosion cracking, hydrogen or sulfide cracking, was investigated. According to the results of electrochemical researches, the kinetic parameters of the cathode and anode processes on the surface of the welded joint of pipe in the investigated solutions are determined. Corrosion resistance of the welded joint HFW-pipe is similar to corrosion resistance of the base metal.