Open Access Short Research Article

Thermodinamical Analyse the Formation of Phosphates Copper, Zinc and Cobalt on the Base Double Superphosphate and Sulphates of Copper, Zinc and Cobalt

Z. Turaev, I. T. Shamshidinov, I. I. Usmanov, O. M. Isakova, B. E. Sultonov

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2019/v28i130129

In this article the relationship between the entropies of crystalline calcium compounds and copper, zinc and cobalt compounds were analyzed. Thermal capacity  dependence of temperature for acidic  phosphates of copper, zinc and cobalt, determining value of enthalpy and entropy of copper, zinc and cobalt phosphates have been determined and  the possibility to conduct thermodynamic analysis of reactions for their formation were established. Accordingly the data of thermodynamic analysis of temperature conditions for obtaining double superphosphate, the most formation of monosubstituted phosphates of copper, zinc and cobalt, and possibility of formation disubstituted of copper phosphates.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physico-chemical Characterization of Wastewaters Discharged into Songolo River at Pointe-Noire, Republic of Congo

K. M. Mbemba, B. D. Koutouma, J. M. Ouamba

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2019/v28i130126

Songolo River receives daily domestic and industrial wastewaters from households, laboratories, small and medium size industries (SMEs) and the Loandjili hospital, which are discharged directly into it without prior treatment. The objective of this study is to evaluate the physico- chemical quality of wastewaters discharged into the Songolo River at Pointe-Noire in Republic of Congo. To do this, 56 wastewater samples were taken. Physicochemical analyzes as temperature, pH, electronical conductivity, total dissolved solids, chloride ions, nitrate ions and total hydrocarbons, were      carried out on wastewaters. These analyzes showed that in terms of time, during wet periods (April to June), the values of the physico-chemical parameters (conductivity, total dissolved solids, chlorides ions, nitrates ions and total hydrocarbons) are the lowest due to the dilution phenomenon brought by the rains. On the other hand, the beginning of the dry season (July) is marked by much higher levels. The results of physico-chemical analyzes of these effluents also revealed that conductivity, total dissolved solids and total hydrocarbons often have values higher than those recommended by the WHO standard for wastewaters intended for release into the natural environment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Remediation of Surface Water Contaminated with Domestic Purpose Kerosene Using Fenton’s Oxidation

D. Y. Shinggu, J. H. Kanus, W. O. Medjor

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2019/v28i130128

The remediation of surface water contaminated with domestic purpose kerosene (DPK) using Fenton’s oxidation was investigated at ambient temperature for effectiveness at optimum conditions established. Results obtained from optimization studies for the Fenton’s oxidation employed for the study were 250000 mg/L H2O2 and 300 mg/L FeSO4 at ambient temperature with pH of samples adjusted to 3.0. At the end of the chemical remediation, the Fenton’s oxidation was found to be rapid with the reaction being exothermic and followed second order kinetics. About 44.4% of the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) as kerosene removal efficiency was achieved after 90 minutes. The reaction also followed a pseudo-first order kinetics with the rate constant of 3x102 mol-1cm3min-1.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microwave-assisted Synthesis, Characterization, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of 1-Benzyl-3-[(4-Methylphenyl)Imino]-Indolin-2-One and Its Co(II) Complex

Adebomi A. Ikotun, Tolulope O. Omolekan

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2019/v28i130130

Aims: To develop a simple, efficient microwave-assisted synthetic method to prepare 1-Benzyl-3-[(4-methylphenyl)imino]-indolin-2-one and its Co(II) complex, characterize and ascertain their biological significance.

Place and Duration of Study: School of Chemistry, Cardiff University, Wales, United Kingdom (November, 2007); Department of Chemistry & Industrial Chemistry, Department of Biological Sciences and Department of Biochemistry, Bowen University, Iwo, Nigeria (September 2015 and June 2018).

Methodology: N-benzylisatin and 4-methylaniline were microwave irradiated in acetic acid to give 1-Benzyl-3-[(4-methylphenyl)imino]-indolin-2-one (C22H18N2O, L; 58 %). L was microwave irradiated with CoCl2.6H2O in ethanol to yield its Co(II) complex. L was characterized using 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, IR and Electronic spectra analyses, exact mass and melting point. IR and Electronic Spectra analyses with melting point confirmed the Co(II) complex was formed. The in-vitro antimicrobial activities of L were evaluated against three gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Haemolytic Staphylococcus aureus), three gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella sp.) and three fungi (Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma viride and Penicillium citrinum). The IC50 of L and its Co(II) complex were carried out against DPPH, H2O2 and NO radicals, as well as their reducing power abilities.

Results: Antimicrobial studies revealed L was active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa with a high zone of inhibition (thrice that of tetracycline) and Penicillium citrinum. The IC50 of L against DPPH, H2O2 and NO radicals were 0.561 ± 0.02, 0.3 ± 0.01 and 0.53 ± 0.01 μg/ml respectively, while they were 0.200 ± 0.01, 0.9 ± 0.02 and 0.26± 0.03 μg/ml for Co(II) complex. Their reducing power abilities at IC50 were 0.53 μg/ml (for L) and 0.6 ± 0.03 μg/ml (the complex).

Conclusion: L was synthesized within 15 min and its Co(II) complex within 5 min. L showed good free radical scavenging activities and reducing power when compared with ascorbic acid, while its Co(II) complex even performed better.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anthelmintic Activities of Hexacosa-9, 11-dienoic Acid and 3-hydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic Acid Isolated from Spermacoce verticillata

S. Garba, M. M. Adeyemi, L. K. Musa

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2019/v28i130131

The phytochemical screening, anthelmintics, and characterization of Spermacoce verticillata crude ethanolic extracts were carried out using standard methods. The research is aimed at investigating the in-vitro anthelmintic activity of Spermacoce verticillata and Cochlospermum tinctorium plants for possible active components. The results of phytochemical screening showed the presence of Alkaloids, Flavonoids, Tannin, Phenol, Fatty acid and Cardiac glycoside, Terpenoid and Saponin. The result of the anthelmintic activities showed that Spermacoce verticillata have paralysis time ranging from 25.9 -71.6 mins with death times ranging from  39 - 90.1 mins at concentrations range between 25 - 100 mg/cm3 The results of Chromatographic and Spectroscopic Analyses using TLC, CCH, IR, NMR GC-MS of c leads to the Isolation of two compounds namely Hexacosa-9,11-dienoic acid (fatty acid) and 3-hydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (Pentacyclic triterpenoid) with paralysis/death time at concentration of 50 mg/cm3  of 22.5 mins and 36.3 mins for the fatty acid and 13.2 mins and 20.1 mins for the pentacyclic triterpenoid. The results were compared with standard drug (Albendazole) which showed higher activity than the crude extracts but lower than the isolated compounds. The results of this work therefore confirmed the traditional claim of using the plant for the treatment of helminthiasis disease.