Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Water Quality of Boreholes in Selected Areas in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria

D. E. Ogbeifun, U. D. Archibong, I. E. Chiedu, E. E. Ikpe

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2019/v28i230133

The water quality of selected boreholes in Oredo, Egor and Ovia North-East Local Government Areas in Benin City metropolis was assessed in terms of their physical, microbial and chemical parameters. A total of nine water samples (three per local government) were collected from randomly selected public boreholes in the month of July, 2018. The physicochemical parameters determined and values obtained are as follows: Electrical conductivity ranged 12.85 to 101.94 µS/cm, Temperature 25.00 to 25.01, pH of 4.32 to 5.55, TDS 0.67 to 4.00 mg/l, COD 3.20 to 16.00 mg/l, Turbidity 1.14 to 5.38FTU, Cl- 106.50 to 426.00 mg/l, SO42- 0.41 to 2.87 mg/l, TSS 0.33 to 1.67 mg/l, TS 1.33 to 4.33 mg/l, NO3- 23.73 to 41.48 mg/l, Mg 0.03 to 0.61mg/l, Ca 0.10 to 0.41 mg/l, HCO3- 7.00 to 22.00 mg/l, Na 0.20 to 7.75 mg/l, K 0.41 to 1.20 mg/l, Mn 0.01 to 0.11 mg/l, Fe 0.01 to 0.02 mg/l, Zn 0.01 to 0.65 mg/l, PO4- 0.07 mg/l for all locations, while some metals like Cd, Pb were not detected. Microbial evaluation was done on the samples to assess the level of E. coli, coliforms and bacteria. The principal component analysis result extracted two components each from the three LGAs; In Oredo LGA, Factor 1 accounted for 84.9% while Factor 2 accounts for 15.1%. In Egor LGA, Factor 1 accounts for 51.1% while Factor 2 accounts for 48.9%. In Ovia North-East LGA, Factor 1 accounted for 59.0% while Factor 2 accounts for 49.0% contributions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Some Heavy Metals in Soils and Vegetables Samples from Kericho West Sub-county, Kenya

Leonard Bett, Ongera Gilbert, Wangila Phanice, Shadrack Mule

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2019/v28i230134

The present study was carried out to investigated the presence of heavy metals (essential and non- essential); Pb, Fe, Cu, Mn and Cd in soils and vegetables such as Brassica oleracea, Brassica oleracea Acephala and Amaranthus palmeri. These soils and vegetables were collected randomly from local farms in Kericho West Sub-County. The samples were analysed for heavy metal by Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectrophotometer (ICPE 9000) to determine the levels of the heavy metals. The mean concentrations of the heavy metals ranged in vegetables:- Manganese (86.33-113.00 mg/kg), Copper (15.67-36.00 mg/kg), Iron (319.33-977.67 mg/kg), Cadmium (10.33-29.00 mg/kg) and Lead (31.67-53.67 mg/kg) as well as in the soils; Mn (172.33-201.00 mg/kg), Cu (1.33-3.33 mg/kg), Fe (63.67-98.00 mg/kg), Cd (3.67-5.33 mg/kg) and Pb (5.00-5.67 mg/kg). The data obtained was analysed by using SPSS version 20.0 for descriptive statistics and one- way ANOVA. From the analysis of heavy metals in vegetables, from Sosiot the concentration of Manganese and copper were significantly different at p-value < 0.05, while Iron, Cadmium, Lead and Manganese were not significantly different at p-value > 0.05; from Kabianga Division, Manganese and Iron were significantly different at p-value < 0.05. Copper, Lead and Cadmium were not significantly different at p-value > 0.05; from Kiptere Division, Manganese, Iron and Copper had no significant difference at p-value < 0.05. Cadmium and lead were significantly different at p-value > 0.05. Manganese had the lowest transfer factor between 0.42 and 1.15. The highest ratios were observed from copper ranging from 15.67 to 36.00 in all vegetables.

Open Access Original Research Article

Proximate and Elemental Analysis of Local Spices Used in Nigeria

Lydia M. Okorafor, Ishaq S. Eneji, Rufus Sha’Ato

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2019/v28i230135

Comparative study of the proximate and mineral components of five local spices (Denniettia tripetala, Monodora myristica, Piper guineense, Syzygium aromaticum, Xylopia aethiopica and) were investigated.  The proximate composition revealed that the spices had considerable carbohydrate ranging from 26.2 –  53.4%, crude fibre 13.6 – 23.7%, crude protein 5.67 – 10.9%, but low ash 2.41 – 5.56%, moisture 8.61 – 17.7%  and fat 2.34 – 24.3%; except D.tripetala  and M. myristica with high moisture content of 17.7%  and crude fat content of   24.3%, respectively.  The EDXRF analysis shows the presence of mineral elements in the order of K ˃ Ca ˃ Fe ˃ Zn ˃ Sr > Se ˃ Mo ˃ Cu ˃ Mn ˃ Br > Rb. Statistical analysis indicates that there is no significant difference (α = 0.01, 0.05) in the mean contribution of the various sample. However, there is a relationship between the constituents of P.guineense and S. aromaticum, X. aethopica, D. tripetala and the elements (Mn, Br) and (Se, Zn). Generally, the findings indicate that the five spices are good sources of nutrients and mineral elements which could be exploited as great potentials for drugs and/or nutritional supplements.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Esterification on Physicochemical Properties of Cellulosic Fabric using Balanites Aegyptiaca Seed Oil

F. I. Omizegba, K. A. Bello, H. M. Adamu, D. E. A. Boryo, J. O. Abayeh, H. Akanang

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2019/v28i230136

This paper presents the results of some physicochemical properties of cellulosic fabric obtained by esterification using 50 cm3 of oil extracted from the seed of Balanites aegyptiaca.

The oil was extracted under reflux with hexane which gave 40% yield and 0.22% moisture content. The identified cellulosic materials 10 cm and 21 cm x 2.5 cm) were subjected to purification process of scouring, bleaching and mercerization to obtain cleaner, whiter and stronger fabric that could withstand esterification treatment.

The yarn crimp was 25% and 15% for warp and weft direction respectively, while the grey fabric gave the lowest of 5% and 8% for warp and weft directions. The linear density (45 tex) was recorded for the esterified fabric compared to 37 tex for the grey fabric along warp direction. The fabric sett increased from 24 thd/cm for grey to 27 thd/cm for esterified along warp direction and 16 thd/cm to 23 thd/cm along weft direction. There was an obvious reduction in shrinkage from 31 for mercerized fabric to 28 along warp direction after esterification and 21 to 19 along weft direction. The tensile parameter was 262.60 N and 166.24 N with extension of 13.92 mm and 12.23 mm along warp and weft directions respectively while the grey fabric recorded 223.87 N and 109.39 N with extensions of 3.64 mm and 3.56 mm in warp and weft direction respectively. There was a remarkable improvement in the dry and wet crease recovery angles after esterification (105º dry and 65º wet, 102º dry and 59º wet) along warp and weft direction respectively. The grey fabric gave the lowest crease recovery (50º dry and 37º wet, 45º dry and 35º wet) along warp and weft directions respectively.

The esterified fabric recorded lower water absorption. The improvements in the investigated properties may be due to dimensional stability, flexibility and fineness due to esterification. This research is commendable because biodegradable organic seed oil is used to modify the physicochemical properties of cellulosic fabric for the first time. These incredible effects of the seed oil on cellulose is an immense contribution to knowledge, hence the oil is recommended for replacement of the present day toxic chemicals used in textile finishing of cellulosic fabrics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Acceptability of Yoghurt Prepared from Milk Substituted with Benth Seed (Adenopus breviflorus) Protein Isolate

F. A. Ishaya, A. E. Onipede, O. A. Omowaye-Taiwo

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2019/v28i230137

Protein has been isolated from Adenopus breviflorus seed flour and used as a supplement to the production of yoghurt. The chemical composition of the seed flour and protein isolate was determined using standard methods. The yoghurt so produced was analysed for its pH, total solids, titratable acidity and the sensory qualities evaluated using the nine point Hedonic scale from dislike extremely (1) and like extremely (9). The results obtained from the chemical composition of the seed flour and protein isolates showed that they are good sources of protein (30.44% and 94.14% respectively). There was s significant reduction in the mineral content and antinutrients of the seed flour after protein isolation. The result obtained from the sensory evaluation showed that milk can be substituted for Adenopus breviflorus protein isolate from the production of yoghurt up to 25%   level of substitution without affecting the sensory qualities.