Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Interaction with Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) of Two α-Aminophosphonic Acids Derivatives

Wei Huang, Wen-Ling Wang

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2019/v28i330138

Two α-amino-phosphonate derivatives (1 & 2) were synthesized and their compositions and structures were characterized by Elemental Analysis (EA), FT-IR Spectrascopy (FT-IR), Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR, 1H, 13C and 31P) and X-ray crystallography. Compound 1 & 2 were crystallized in monoclinic system with the space group P2(1)/n and P2(1)/c, respectively. The interaction effects of two α-aminophosphonate derivatives (1 & 2) with BSA were investigated and the binding constants were 1.07 × 104 M-1, 1.68 × 104 M-1, respectively. Besides, the values of n were indicated that 1:1 complex was formed between BSA and 1&2.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation of Selected Heavy Metals Concentration in Animal Feeds in United Arab Emirates

Nizar A. Al Haj Ali, Ideisan I. Abu-Abdoun, Abdulla S. Janaan, Jumana H. Hassan, Maha A. Al Jeaidi

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2019/v28i330139

The animal feed materials contaminated with heavy metals, which usually comes from soils to plant, atmosphere and contaminated seawater. Various animal feed and feed supplements imported by local agents at United Arab Emirates (UAE) subjected for analysis using ICP- MS technique the concentration of the four selected heavy metals, namely; Arsenic (As), Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), and mercury (Hg), found to be within the national standard.

Open Access Original Research Article

Eliminating the Pre-exponential Factor in Classical Nucleation Theory

John H. Jennings

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2019/v28i330140

Blander and Katz give a formula in classical nucleation theory, J = A exp K, for homogeneous nucleation (liquid-->gas). Jennings proved that dlnA/dK = 1/6K for all pure liquids by combining two theories, taking the limit as polymer concentration-->0. This gives lnA = (1/12)ln(K2) + C, where C is the integration constant. The conjecture is that C is a constant for fluids of low molecular weight.  We used data for 7 sample solvents, and solved for C. The surface tension drops out in C, which makes C more accurate, as the surface tension is difficult to get at 0.89Tc, the limit of superheat. Tc = critical point in Kelvin. All quantities are evaluated at the limit of superheat, which is approximately 0.89Tc for solvents. C = 74.77 ± 0.33 for the 7 solvents (not all alkanes). This eliminates the prefactor A, streamlining J: ln J = (1/12)ln(K2) + 74.77 + K is the exact new equation.  A computer can more easily be used to calculate J, the nucleation rate.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization of Neocarya Macrophylla Seed Oil using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FT-IR) Techniques

Aliyu Ahmad Warra, Lawal Gusau Hassan, Leye Jonathan Babatola, Adedara Adejoju Omodolapo, Richard Undigweundeye Ukpanukpong, Godwin Ayebaitari Berena

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2019/v28i330142

Aim: Modern researches described incorporating gingerbread plum (Neocarya macrophylla) kernel oils into food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical products by exploiting its physicochemical properties.

Study Design: Experimental and instrumental study was done to determine the general and the saturated fatty acids present in the seed oil and its suitability for industrial applications. This study examined the fatty acids by qualitative determination from hexane extracts of Neocarya macrophylla seed using GC-MS.

Materials and Methods: Indigenous Neocarya macrophylla   seeds obtained from Gingerbread plum tree were collected in the Month of August from Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi State, Nigeria. soxhlet extraction method was used for the oil extraction. The GC-MS analysis was by coupling system of Shimadzu QP2010 series gas chromatography with Shimadzu QP2010 plus mass spectroscopy detector (GCMS).  For the FT-IR analysis, software of OMNIC operating system (Version 7.0 Thermo Nicolet) was connected to Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer Nicolet 8400S equipped with a detector of deuterated triglycine sulphate (DTGS).

Conclusion: These results showed the potential of this oil in cosmetic industry.

Open Access Original Research Article

Extraction, Characterization and Application of Cashew Nut Shell Liquid from Cashew Nut Shells

Sampson Kofi Kyei, Onyewuchi Akaranta, Godfred Darko, Uche J. Chukwu

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2019/v28i330143

In this study, cashew nut shell liquid has been extracted from cashew nut shells using an accelerated solvent extraction technique and was employed as a precursor for the synthesis of cashew nut shell liquid resin. The extract was a dark brown viscous liquid with an average yield of 30.61±0.200%. Results of the physical analysis showed a moisture content of 4.45±0.020% and a density of 0.95±0.300 gcm-3. The percentage brix and refractive index were 76.20±0.001 and 1.47 ±0.010 respectively. Chemical characterization showed a pH of 5.65±0.003; acid value of 8.25± 0.200 mg KOH/g; ash content of 1.80±0.6%; free fatty acid of 4.12±0.400 mg KOH/g; ester value of 247.01±0.100 mg KOH/g and a saponification value of 255.26±0.800 mg KOH/g. The FTIR spectra revealed that cashew nut shell liquid is polymeric. These findings confirm that higher phenolic compounds which can be used as potential precursors in industrial applications could be obtained from agro wastes.

Practical Applications: Cashew nut shell liquid, an extract from cashew nut shell, an agro waste has a wide range of functional products. A practical application is synthesis of a high viscous, flexible cashew nut shell liquid resin with physical properties that are consistent with literature and could also be further used in other industrial applications. Further processing of cashew nut shell for the development of value added products like resin can be a better option.