Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Extractable and Bound Organochlorine in Sediment by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

Samuel Afful, Johannes A. M. Awudza, Shiloh Osae, Michael Tawiah, Ellis Enimil, Beatrice Puplampu, Gladys Adjei Mantey

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 9-18
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2020/v29i630183

Extractable organochlorine (EOC) and bound organochlorine (BOC) compositions in sediments from Lake Bosomtwi have been determined with instrumental neutron activation technique. Within the limit of experimental errors, the precision and accuracy of the method for the determination were within 3% and 4% respectively. The mean levels of EOC and BOC were in the range of 1.71 mg/kg to 5.18 mg/kg and 0.31 mg/kg to 0.68 mg/kg respectively. Analysis of organochlorine data showed the EOC content on the average was about seven times more than those of BOC. Washing of chloride from sediment fortified with an insoluble chloride, thus PbCl2, with various concentrations of sodium nitrate (NaNO3) solutions was investigated and washing with 0.1 M solution of NaNO3 gave the optimum yield of chloride. Organic carbon (OC) and BOC compositions in the sediments were subjected to correlation analysis and results showed that the two correlated very well with corrected coefficient of 0.65. OC in sediments could therefore, be one of the carrier phases of BOC in sediments.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Equation for Rise in Superheat by Adding Electrolyte

John H. Jennings

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 19-21
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2020/v29i630184

For many liquids, the limit of superheat is 0.89 Tc, where Tc = temperature Kelvin at critical point.  The rise in the limit of superheat by addition of polymer has a formula, B’, derived by Jennings, and this paper makes use of a pattern to predict the formula for rise in superheat by adding electrolyte, B. The equations for boiling point elevation by addition of electrolyte, A, and polymer, A’, are known, so we make use of a proportion and solve for the unknown, B, thus: B= (A/A’) x B’ to get the equation.

A, A’ and B’ all have the phase change temperature squared at 1 atmosphere pressure in the numerator times the ratio of the molecular weight solvent divided by the product of the density of solvent times molecular weight solute in the expression that equals lim c--->0 (dT/dc) giving the limiting slope of rise in temperature versus concentration solute.  The van’t Hoff factor is included.  The proposed formula B for RISE IN SUPERHEAT BY ADDITION OF ELECTROLYTE is:

 

lim c--->0 (dT/dc)s, electrolyte = (3 k MW1 Ts 2 i) / (ρ1  σ1 a MW2(e)). 

           

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study of Extraction Methods on the Composition and Physicochemical Properties of Vegetable Oil from the Seeds of Ricinus communis

Richard Daris Tegaboue Nguedap, Donald Raoul Tchuifon Tchuifon, Mariam Asseng Conde, Ghislain Mengata Mengounou, Jean Claude Ndom, Anatole Guy Blaise Azebaze

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 29-37
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2020/v29i630188

This paper carries out the effects of the extraction methods on the quantities and qualities of vegetable oil from Ricinus communis. The same initial quantities of Ricinus communis were used to extract oil by the physical methods, hot and cold hydraulic press, and screw press; and the chemical method of solvent extraction using various solvents at the same temperature. The resulting oils were characterized to obtain the acid index, saponification index, iodine index, peroxide index, water content, specific density, kinematic viscosity at 40°C, color, hydrogen potential (pH), refractive index, the fatty acid profile of the oils by gas chromatography (GC) and the density at 15°C; in accordance with the ASTM standard specification. The results obtained show that, quantitatively, the hydraulic press has the best yield (46.25%) and qualitatively, the screw press extract has the best properties on a wide range of properties.  This result allows us to conclude that the extraction methods depend on the use or application of the vegetable oil.

Open Access Review Article

A Review on Abatement of Nickel(II) from Aqueous Solution by Agricultural Biomass

S. Sophie Beulah, K. Muthukumaran

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2020/v29i630182

Levels of toxins has increased in water due to the spurge of industries. Nickel (II) is mostly used in industries because of its anticorrosion behaviour. Nickel (II) is present in the effluent of electroplating, plastics manufacturing, fertilizers and mining industries. It causes detrimental effect on the human health as well as environment because of its toxicity, non-biodegradability and bioaccumulation. Adsorption technique has been investigated in many researches as an effective method for not only detoxifying but also recovering precious heavy metal ions from aqueous solution. In this review various agricultural biomass based adsorbents used for removing Ni(II) from aqueous solution, optimum parameters employed and their removal efficiency from wastewater have been explored.

Open Access Review Article

Introductory of Scherrer’s Equation in Laminated Plate-Shaped Hexagonal Hydroxyapatite Nanocrystals System

Shiv Prakash Mishra

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 22-28
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2020/v29i630185

Since, hydroxyapatite (HAP) crystal system is hexagonal and its crystalline size in the longitudinal directions of various (a,b,c) axes, which are depending on the thickness of the laminated plate-shaped HAP crystals. Hence, by applying of Scherrer’s equation D100 = Kλ / (β cos ) we calculated their crystallite size as perpendicular to the (100) plane as well as to comparing the thickness of synthesized needle or laminated  thin plate shaped HAP nanocrystals of CALPHOS or CONTROL and SUC or Suc-20 samples under hydrothermal condition via organically modified apatite based octacalcium phosphate (OCP) at 180  for 3h. The pH of solution adjusted to 5.5 with incorporating dicarboxylate or succinate ions having Ca/P molar ratio is expected to be 1.56±0.02, where the morphology of OCP are retained. During incorporating of succinate ions in OCP crystals, the hydrogen phosphate (HPO42-) ions in the hydrated layers of OCP are being substituted by succinate ions.  These organically modified OCP which generated to HAP with unique nanocrystallite structure have been characterized by using of SEM, FTIR and X-ray diffraction analysis.