Open Access Original Research Article

Mechanism of the Electrochemical Deposition of a CoNiFe Alloy

Robert Dmitrievich Tikhonov

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2020/v29i730189

Heating the chloride electrolyte to a temperature of 70°C ensures the normal codeposition of the components of the CoNiFe alloy as a result of the discharge of single-charged iron and cobalt species (Fe2+Cl-)+ and (Co2+Cl-)+, respectively and double-charged Ni2+ ions at a high cathode current density. The chloride electrolyte obtained with filtration and pH correction by hydrochloric acid provides the electrochemical deposition of CoNiFe films with a CCo:CNi:CFe ratio of 1:1:1. The mechanism of the abnormal deposition of Co, Fe and Ni occurs due to the incomplete ionization of atoms and differences in ion mobility. Based on the experimental results of CoNiFe films, an electrochemical deposition mechanism is proposed. In contrast to the well-known in the literature, the phenomena occurring in the volume of electrolyte, including transmission of ions, with the determining effect is the mobility and formation of positive ions on the anode. CoNiFe films are produced without mechanical stresses, with a uniform structure and with high magnetic parameters without a high burn temperature. Electrochemical deposition when the charge of ions in the electrolyte is taken into account allows to obtaining a reproducible electrochemical deposition of CoNiFe films.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti Stress Activity of Phytoecdysteroids Isolated from Aerial Part of Silene claviformis

Nurmurod Ramazonov, Ugiloy Yusupova, Feruza Egamova, Vladimir Syrov

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 9-17
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2020/v29i730190

Aims: The aim of present study was to isolate the phytoedysteroids from aerial part of Silene claviformis (Caryophyllaceae) and investigate their biological activity.

Place and Duration of Study: The investigation were carried out during 2019 and 2020 at  laboratory of the chemistry of glycosides and department of the pharmacological and toxicology of  Institute of the Chemistry of Plant Substances AS RUz, Tashkent, Uzbekistan.

Methodology: The phytoecdysteroids were isolated from aerial part of Silene claviformis using chromatographic methods. Thin-layer chromatography made on Silufol UV-254 and Merck plates, Fluka Analytical Germany, by spraying with alcohol solution of vanillin and heating for 1-2 minutes for 90-1000, UV lamp light at 254 nm and 365 nm. Their structures were confirmed by NMR and IR spectroscopy. Sum of phytoecdysteroids was administered at a dose of 10 mg/kg orally. The data obtained during the experiments were processed and analyzed by the method of variation statistics using the Student t-criterion.

Results: Silene claviformis contains 2-deoxyecdysterone (1), polypodine B (2), 20-hydroxyecdysone (3), ecdysterone-20,22-acetalisovaleric aldehyde (4),integristeron A (5),cyasterone (6), ecdysterone-20,22-acetalisovalerian (7), 2-deoxy-α-ecdysone (8). The compounds 2 and 6 are reported for the first time from this genus. The biological activity (stress-protective effect) of the mentioned phytoecdysteroids studied for the first time. These compounds were tested on male mice for their biological activities and results showed that, the adrenal gland mass increased in relation to the adrenal gland mass of intact animals by 42.6%, they showed a significant decrease in the content of ascorbic acid and cholesterol by 56.5 and 49.1%, respectively. A significant decrease in glycogen content (by 30.1%) and a noticeable activation of lipid peroxidation processes were noted in the liver, as indicated by an increase of 69.2% in the content of malondialdehyde in the organ.

Conclusion: This is the first study reporting an orally biological investigation for Silene claviformis. The sum of phytoecdysteroids showed potent stress-protective activity. The stress-protective effect of phytoecdysteroids was more pronounced in compared the eleutherococcus extract.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization of Leachate from Municipal Open Solid Waste in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria

D. Nanev, James, S. Eneji, Ishaq, A. Wuana, Raymond, S. Eneji, Ishaq, U. Itodo, Anthony

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 18-27
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2020/v29i730191

The increase in the growth of population and urbanization in most state capitals has resulted in generation of large volumes of solid waste. Municipal solid waste is generated daily with an average of 0.5-1.5 Kg/daily per household. Municipal solid waste has become a health hazard in Nigeria, which is yet to be tackled properly by the government and local authority. The methods used for the analysis of leachate samples were adopted from American public health association (APHA, 2012). This study characterizes the physico-chemical properties of leachate from municipal open solid waste in Makurdi, Benue state, Nigeria. The results showed that the colour and smell were light brown and malodourous respectively while the mean pH, temperature, Total solids, Total volatile solids, Suspended solids, Total dissolved solids, COD, BOD5, BOD5/COD ratio, Pb, Ni, Co, Cr and Cd were 7.79±0.02, 35.28, 5993.0±33.0 mg/L, 228.0±8.5 mg/L, 887.0±6.5 mg/L, 12168.0±22.1 mg/L, 868.00±0.12 mg O2/L, 373.000±0.002 mg O2/L, 0.46, 0.461.000±0.0010, 0.0845.000±0.0004, 0.2045.000±0.0009, 0.5211.000±0.0011 and 0.1565.000±0.0010 respectively. The leachate sample contain high concentration of organic and inorganic constituents including toxic metal content higher than the NESREA standards limit for drinking water.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Lockdown Measures during COVID-19 Pandemic on Water Vapors in Subtemperate and Subtropical Zones of Jammu Region, Jammu & Kashmir Union Territory, India

Mahender Singh, Vishaw Vikas, Rohit Sharma, Charu Sharma, Sushmita M. Dadhich

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 28-54
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2020/v29i730193

Aim: To evaluate the effect of lockdown amid COVID 19 pandemic on water vapors in atmosphere under subtemperate and subtropical zones of Jammu region.

Methodology: To study the variation in atmospheric chemistry, the data was analyzed on fortnightly basis in order to assess the water vapor presence in the atmosphere during complete lockdown, i.e. from 24th March to 17th May 2020. The data of Temperature and Relative Humidity were recorded from Agrometeorological Observatory situated at respective locations under study. The water vapor attributing parameters were calculated by adopting different formulae.

Results: The analysis of weather data was done by adopting different statistical techniques and it was found that ambient temperature was below normal with a deviation of -5.99% and -3.69% under subtropical and subtemperate zone. With the downshifting pattern observed in temperature, the density of air also decreased with deviation of -0.29% in subtropical zone and -0.46 % in subtemperate zone. The relative humidity, mixing ratio and dew point temperature under subtropical conditions were increased by 8.19, 1.03 and 1.61% respectively, while under subtemperate zone the parameters increased by 3.98, 4.51 and 10.3% respectively.  The saturated mixing ratio, enthalpy and absolute humidity were deviated by -4.53%, -5.45 and -1.50% in subtropical zone and 5.94, 6.62 and 8.28 % in subtemperate zone.

Conclusion: Variable significant patterns were observed for each parameter and thus it can be concluded that lockdown had a plausible impact on all humidity or water vapor attributes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Organochlorine Pesticide Residue Levels in Parts of Watermelon Grown in the Ada-West District of Greater Accra Region, Ghana and Its Related Human Health Risks

Samuel Kofi Agbeve, Ebenezer Ato Ewusie, Samuel Afful, Simon Sovoe

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 55-64
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2020/v29i730194

The study involved the use of soxhlet apparatus and CP-3800 Gas Chromatograph equipped with a 63Ni electron capture detector to investigate the presence and levels of organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues in sampled parts of watermelon. The study revealed the presence of fifteen OCPs residues in the peel, pulp and seeds of watermelon from the selected communities in the Ada-West District of the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. Most of the OCP residues investigated were below the limit of detection of 0.01 µg/kg. Detectable OCP residues whose concentrations were above detection limit were dieldrin and p, p’-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (p,p'–DDE). The seeds of watermelon from Koluedor recorded the highest level of 2.10 µg/kg of p’p-DDE while the lowest level of 0.20 µg/kg of dieldrin and p’p-DDE were recorded in the peel of watermelon from Sege. The mean levels of the detected pesticide residues in peel, pulp and seeds of watermelon were also below maximum residue limits (MRLs) set by European Union (EU). Estimated daily intake (EDI) of organochlorine pesticide residues as a result of consumption of the studied watermelon for children ranged from 0.001 µg/kg to 0.006 µg/kg and those for adults were from 0.0005 µg/kg to 0.003 µg/kg. EDIs values obtained were however, far below reference doses (RFDs) recommended by United State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA).