Open Access Case study

Fatal Outcome of the Inappropriate Use of an Organophosphate Compound (Sniper) in a Resource-Limited Setting

Chioma Okechukwu, Ajibola Alabi

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 31-36
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2020/v29i830198

This case of unintentional organophosphate poisoning in a 9-year-old girl highlights the fatal consequence of the inappropriate use of an organophosphate pesticide bearing the trade name Sniper. The child developed significant organophosphate (OP) toxicity from dermal absorption of the chemical agent applied to her scalp by her mother and hairdresser in an attempt to treat head lice. This case also outlines the management of organophosphate poisoning, identifies the constrains of management in a resource-limited setting and emphasizes the need for prevention through community education and enforcement of regulatory measures.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutritional Contributions to the Physical-Chemical and Biochemical Properties of Cassava (Manihot Esculenta Crantz) Leaves Grown in South Benin

Togbe Finagnon Crepin Alexis, Yete Pelagie, Yovo Franck, Wotto Valentin

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2020/v29i830195

The objective of this study was to determine some physico-chemical and biochemical parameters of the leaves of a sweet variety of cassava (Manihot esculenta crantz) grown in South Benin, particularly in the regions of Pobè, Adja-ouèrè and Kétou, in order to assess their nutritional value. The results revealed that cassava leaves are a good source of fiber, the vitamin C content of the leaves varied from 69.48 to 75.16 mg/100 g of fresh matter; beta-carotene, varied from 1970 to 2347 μg/100 g of fresh matter. They were also rich in mineral elements with potassium values ranging from 18784 to 23542 mg/100 g of fresh matter. The calcium content varied from 1065 to 1260 mg / 100 g dry matter, and the phosphorus content varied from 1369 to 2410 mg / 100 g of dry matter. The magnesium content ranged from 1330 to 1680 mg / 100 g of dry matter. The iron content varied from 13 to 15 mg / 100 g of dry matter. The protein content was more than 30%. These leaves are good sources of carbohydrates with contents ranging from 160 to 170 mg / 100 g of dry matter for reducing sugars and 1340 to 1630 mg / 100 g of dry matter for total sugars. The analysis of these parameters revealed that cassava leaves are an important nutritional intake due to their high content of vitamin C and beta carotene, minerals, and soluble and insoluble fibers that have a beneficial effect on the intestinal mucosa. In view of these various benefits, it would be appropriate to encourage the population to consume cassava leaves because they have a very high nutritional value.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chemical Composition of Anthocleista vogelii and Anti-oxidant Effect of Its Methanolic and Acetone Extracts

E. E. Ikpe, U. D. Archibong, C. U. Michael, E. G. Ukpong

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 7-18
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2020/v29i830196

This study entailed determination of chemical composition of Anthocleista vogelii and anti-oxidant effect of its methanolic and acetone extract. The phytochemical screening of Anthocleista vogelii showed quantitatively the presence of alkaloids, Tannins, Flavonoids, Saponins, Glycoside and phenols. The results from the proximate analysis indicated that the plant contained some important nutrient such as carbohydrate with percentage content of 16.07 – 34.67%, lipid 5.40 – 7.35%, and crude protein 2.23 – 2.41%. The mineral element analysis showed that potassium (K) was 32.6 – 41.1 mg/kg, sodium (Na) 5.41- 6.21 mg/kg, calcium 9.74 – 17.81 mg/kg, magnesium (mg) 5.71 – 32.0 mg/kg and Zn 0.32 – 0.68 mg/kg. The acetone and methanol leaves, stem bark and roots extracts of Anthocleista Vogelii exhibited reasonable scavenging activity in the DPPH (1, 1- diphenyl – 2- picrlhydrazyl) assay. The methnaolic extracts had a better inhibiting ability than acetone extract which could be attributed to higher content of tannin and Saponin in methanolic than acetone extract. The results were discussed with referenced to World Health Organization (WHO) standard of nutritional and medicinal values.

Open Access Original Research Article

Removal of Lead Ions from Waste Water Using Modified Jordanian Zeolite

Hutaf M. Baker

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 19-30
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2020/v29i830197

In this study a Jordanian Zeolite was modified using anionic surfactant which is sodium dodecyl sulfate (sodium dodecyl sulfate). The sorption of Pb(II) from synthetic wastewater by surfactant modified  Zeolite (SMZ) was investigated as a function of temperature. The experimental data was analysed using isotherm models namely Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson and Temkin and kinetic models such as the pseudo- second-order, intraparticle diffusion and the Elovich models in order to understand the mechanism of the interaction between this SMZ and the lead ions. All the isotherm models showed good correlation with the experimental results but Freundlich was the best. The calculated DH was obtained using Langmuir constant (aL), its value of 8.29kJ/mol revealed that the type of sorption is physical oneThe values of RL at all temperatures reflect the favorability of this interaction. The calculated activation energy was 21.126 kJ/mol using the pseudo-second order constant (k2), which indicates that the sorption is physisorption. The intraparticle diffusion model showed multilinearity which means multiple stages there occurred to achieve the removal of lead ions, the first linear curve is due to the boundary layer diffusion and the second linear curve isfor the intraparticle diffusion effect. The adsorption kinetics data fitted also Elovich model.

Open Access Original Research Article

Valorization of Green Clay from Bouaflé (Ivory Coast) in the Simultaneous Elimination of Organic Pollutants and Metallic Trace Elements by Adsorption: Case of Methylene Blue and Cadmium Ions

Bintou Coulibaly, Lemeyonouin Aliou Guillaume Pohan, Ollo Kambiré, Lébé Prisca Sandrine Kouakou, Hervé Goure-Doubi, Donourou Diabaté, Lassiné Ouattara

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 37-51
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2020/v29i830200

The objective of this work was to valorize the clays of Côte d'Ivoire in the treatment of wastewater. The study focused on the ability of raw clays from Bouaflé city to adsorb methylene blue and cadmium ions, in aqueous solution. The physicochemical characteristics of the clay were determined using the measurement of its specific surface area, chemical analysis and mineralogical analysis. It emerges from these characterizations that clay is essentially composed of type 2/1 minerals such as illite (32.94%), type 1/1 kaolinite (8.47%), quartz (40.23 %) and approximately iron oxy-hydroxides (18.36%). Its specific surface is 37.58 m2 / g. The kinetics, thermodynamics and isotherms of adsorption have been used to understand the mechanism of adsorption. The results obtained show that the organic pollutant alone in solution (methylene blue (MB)) is adsorbed quite quickly. We obtained a decoloration yield greater than 90% after 40 min of adsorbate-adsorbent contact. The elimination of methylene blue is greater in a basic medium. The BM adsorption kinetics were modeled. The comparison of the correlation factors of the different kinetic models used has shown that the adsorption kinetics of the organic pollutant (MB) better match the pseudo second order kinetic model. Thermodynamics predicted a spontaneous endothermic surface reaction, due to the positive sign of  and the negative sign of , obtained (  = 31.398;  = -12.635). Analysis of adsorption isotherms allowed us to show that the adsorption of methylene blue on clay is physisorption type and in monolayer. The experiments were also performed with an aqueous solution containing both methylene blue and cadmium ions. After a contact time of 120 min, 60% of the cadmium ions are adsorbed on the clay against only 20% of methylene blue. Thus, clay preferentially eliminates trace metal elements (Cd2+) compared to organic pollutants (methylene blue).