Open Access Other: Scholarly Book Review
A chalcone derivative, (2E)-3-(4-hydroxy-3-ethoxyphenyl)-1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (HEHP), C17 H16 O4, has been synthesized from the mixture of 4-hydroxyacetophenone (0.05mol) and 4-hydroxy-3-ethoxybenzaldehyde (0.05mol) and by following Claisen-Schmidt reaction mechanism. Three-dimensional molecular structure, orthorhombic crystal system, and Pbca space group for the title compound were elucidated via single crystal XRD spectral study. The appearance of the vibration and absorptions for functional groups were identified using the FT-IR spectrum. 1H and 13CNMR spectra were recorded to recognize the number of unique protons and carbon environments and the best estimation of functionality based on shielding/ deshielding effects. The UV-Visible spectral study gives assistance to appreciate the absorbance and transmittance capabilities of the title molecule while Photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of the compound indicates the blue light emission in the visible region. Information regarding the endothermic and exothermic processes correlated with the sample was obtained from TG/DTA thermal analysis and the material was found to be stable up to 216°C. Mechanical properties such as the Hardness (HV), Meyer's index (n), Newtonian resistance pressure (W), load independent constant (b) and elastic stiffness constant (Cij) were calculated by performing a Vickers hardness test on the compound and they demonstrate excellent mechanical power. The as-synthesized molecule has been screened for its antibacterial, antifungal, and antioxidant activities and observed to exhibit promising activity against various microorganisms
Open Access Short Research Article
In this article obtaining complex nitrogen-phosphate fertilizers based on activation of phosphorite powder with partially ammoniated mix of phosphoric and sulphuric acids have been studied. In order to reduce the foaming of the process, for the first time a partially ammoniated mix of acids was used. The optimal technological parameters for activation phosphorite powder with partially neutralized mixes of sulphuric and phosphoric acids are the followings: the mix of sulphuric and phosphoric acids with a ratio of SО3:Р2О5 = 1.2; рН of acids – 2.5; weight ratio of ammonium sulphate-phosphate slurry towards phosphorite powder is 100 : 20; temperature is 60°С; duration is 30 min. The composition nitrogen-phosphate fertilizers obtained in optimal condition contains (wt., %): N – 11.55; Р2О5total -24.61; Р2О5acceptable by citric acid -21.66; Р2О5 acceptable by EDTA -20.24; Р2О5water-soluble -13.02; CaOtotal -13.59; СаОacceptable by citric acid -11.43. In that condition, granulated products of nitrogen-phosphate can be produced with high strength. The advantage of offered promising technology concludes in reduction two times expenditure of the most expensive ammonia in comparison with ammonium sulphate production and an increase in gross domestic product.
Open Access Original Research Article
Aims: Herbal medicines are widely used because of its health benefits and minimum side effects. There are many underutilized medicinal herbs in Sri Lanka which are not subjected to any scientific study to prove their health benefits. The present study attempted to identify the health benefits and possibility to develop herbal teas from selected herbs; Solanum trilobatum, Ocimum tenuiflorum, Cardiospermum halicacabum, Acalypha indica and Plectranthus amboinicus.
Study Design: Complete Randomized Design was employed.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in Agricultural Chemistry Laboratory of Uva Wellassa University, Badulla, Sri Lanka From November 2018 to March 2019.
Methodology: Leaf samples of these herbs were oven dried for 12 hours at 50 . Infusions were prepared by boiling varying amounts of leaf samples from 1g to 5g in 100 ml of distilled water and tested for antioxidant activity with DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) assay and α-amylase inhibition activity using Dinitrosalicylic acid method. Sensory evaluation was conducted for the same infusions with ISO-3103 specifications to select the best amounts of samples for consumption. The selected amounts were subjected to chemical analysis.
Results: The best antioxidant activity and α-amylase inhibition activity were observed in C.halicacabum with 7.71 mg ml-1 and 45.51 mg ml-1 IC50 values respectively. Results confirmed that all leaf infusions contain Anthocyanin (4.20-0.11mg dm-3), Polyphenols (120.49-32.93 mg dm-3 and Free Sugar (262.95-24.67mg dm-3).
Conclusion: Selected herbs show positive responses towards selected biochemical properties and there is a very good potential to develop herbal teas with interesting health benefits with high customer attraction. C. halicacabum shows the best potential among selected herbs. However, it is suggested to carry out further studies to confirm these results and find out any adverse effects of overconsumption.
Open Access Original Research Article
A new set of 15 compounds containing etodolac moiety and triazole ring were prepared by CuAAC reaction in moderate to high yield. All the synthesized compounds were purified by chromatographic techniques and characterized by spectral data IR, 1H and 13C NMR and mass spectrometry. The newly derived compounds were screened for their anti-bacterial activities against one gram-positive (S. aureus) and two gram-negative (E. coli, K. pneumoniae) bacteria using an agar-well diffusion method. Most of the compounds showed good to moderate antibacterial activities. Especially compound 4e having good activities against all the strains. The compound 4e displayed signiﬁcant inhibitory potential with MIC 25 µg/mL against all the strains. The potential DNA gyrase inhibitory activity of this compound was investigated by using molecular docking studies carried out using Autodock Vina software. The compound 4e showed the lowest ΔGbind results (-7.7 Kcal/mol, -7.9Kcal/mol). The cytotoxic activity of the obtained compounds was determined using A549 cancer cell line by a MTT assay. They displayed promising activity against the human lung cancer cell line. Especially 4o, 4b, 4d shown lowest IC50 values.
Open Access Original Research Article
A field experiment was conducted at the farm of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore during kharif season to study the effect of soil chemical properties, microbial biomass and soil enzyme dynamics on transplanted rice with organic amendments. Rice CO(R) 48 was used as a test variety. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design (RBD) with three replications and nine treatments. The treatment consists Recommended Dose of Fertilizers 100% NPK (150 : 50 : 50 kg ha-1) through inorganic fertilizers, Based on N equivalent basis, required quantities of organic manures (Dhaincha, vermicompost and Farmyard Manure @ 50% and 100%) were incorporated into the soil one week before transplanting of rice. The P and K requirement was supplied separately through inorganic sources as per treatment schedule. In the present investigation, an attempt was made to examine the influence of different levels and sources of fertilization on dynamics of soil chemical properties, microbial biomass and enzyme activities under anaerobic rice cultivation. Soil samples were taken before the start of experiment and harvest of rice for analysis of soil chemical characteristics, microbial biomass and enzyme activity. The results revealed that maximum microbial population (bacteria, fungal & actinomycetes), soil enzyme dynamics (urease, dehydrogenase & soil phosphatase activity), soil available macro nutrients (N, P, K) & micro nutrients (Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu) were significantly influenced with application of 100% N through dhaincha + balance P & K through inorganic fertilizers followed by application of 100% NPK through inorganic fertilizers + 6.25 t dhaincha. Least enzyme activity, microbial population & soil available nutrients of rice were registered in absolute control.