Open Access Original Research Article

Removal of Methylene Blue and Neutral Red Dyes from Spiked Waste-Water Using Edtad Modified Cellulose Obtained from Pennisetum purpureum

Brenda Oyaro, Elijah Ngumba, Ali Mohammed Salim

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2021/v30i330219

The presence of dyes in aquatic effluents is highly visible, undesirable, carcinogenic to human beings and toxic to living organisms. EDTAD modified cellulose extracted from Pennisetum purpureum was studied as an adsorbent for the removal of cationic dyes from spiked waste-water. Shimadzu Fourier Transform Infrared spectrophotometer, was used to analyze functional groups of cellulose and EDTAD modified cellulose. The characteristic peaks at 1260 cm-1, 1634 cm-1, 1058 cm-1, and 1740 cm-1 indicated formation of ester bond linkages associated with the introduction of EDTAD thus successful modification of cellulose. Shimadzu UV-VIS 1800 series determined the degree of dye concentration. Optimum adsorption was determined by varying the dosage, pH, contact time, and the initial concentration of the dyes.

An increase in adsorbent mass increased the percentage removal for both dyes up to a maximum of 98%. Low pH levels prompted low percentage removal as compared to higher pH values for both dyes. Kinetic studies were carried out using the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms, to investigate the rate of adsorption. Methylene blue and neutral red dyes seemed to conform to langmuir with high R2 values of 0.999 and 0.997 respectively while freundlich isotherm had values of 0.9969 and 0.9835, indicating that the adsorption surface of the EDTAD modified cellulose was monolayer. Methylene Blue adsorption capacity was 200mg/g while for Neutral Red dye was 149.25mg/g. The kinetics were well depicted by pseudo second order model whose correlation coefficients were closer to unity than those of the first order model. The efficiency of EDTAD modified cellulose from Pennisetum purpureum as an adsorbent in the removal of dyes renders it a remedy to the various problems caused by dyes to aquatic life and human beings.

Open Access Original Research Article

Room Temperature Synthesis of Nanostructured ZnO: Active Visible Photocatalyst in the Degradation of Methylene Blue

Amine El Farrouji, Rachid Mohamed Tchalala, Abderrahim Chihab Eddine, Ahmad Mehdi, Larbi El Firdoussi, Mustapha Ait Ali

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 13-20
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2021/v30i330220

Nanostructured ZnO was prepared using a facile solution-phase method at room temperature without need to calcination. Oxidation of zinc sulfate by sodium hypochlorite in the presence of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) gave pure nanostructured zinc oxide (ZnO-NPs). The structure and physicochemical properties of the material were determined by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (IR), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), UV–Vis diffuse reflectance and their optical Properties. ZnO particles were successfully distributed in two-dimensional sheet with a nanometric thickness and a random distribution. The activity was evaluated for photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) by a study of experimental conditions such as the effect of the mass of the catalyst, the effect of the initial concentration of the dye and the effect of the volume of the oxidizing agent. The kinetics of the reaction follow a pseudo-first order.

Open Access Original Research Article

Allelopathic Properties of Ipomoea Hildebrandtii Vatke

Njiema Gitaari, Patrick Kareru, Mercy Githua, C. Gathu Nyaga

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 21-31
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2021/v30i330221

The use of synthetic pesticides to alleviate the notorious weeds in farms has caused environmental pollution, consumption of chemicals absorbed by plants and resistance posed by the weeds putting agricultural development and ecological systems under threat. The main reason for study of allelopathic effect of the plant include; its application of observed allelopathic effects to agricultural production, reduction of inputs to chemical pesticides uses, resultant environmental pollution and for provision of fruitful method for sustainable development of agriculture and ecological systems. This study made the use of allelochemicals produced by the invasive Ipomoea hildebrandtii to provide an effective method of controlling weeds through biological control method which is environmentally friendly as compared to the conventional chemical method. Extraction was done and concentrated by rotary evaporator, pH of the soil under which the plant grew was determined. The allelopathic test was done at different concentrations in petri dishes on Phaseolus vulgaris and the characterization of the plant compounds done by Ultra Violet coupled to visible region, Fourier Transform Infra-Red, and Gas Chromatograph -Mass Spectroscopy. The leave extract was more effective in allelopathic effect on the plant than the stem extract, that means the inhibiting compounds are more concentrated in the leaves than the stem.

Open Access Original Research Article

Experimental Evidence of the Dependence of Oil Extraction Rate on Extraction Time and Structure of Generative Material

A. B. Kunyima, H. M. Kaseya, P. L. Kunyima

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 32-39
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2021/v30i330222

Background: Kinetic and thermodynamic studies of the extraction of oils from pumpkin seeds, sesame seeds and Moringa seeds have been carried out at temperatures of 56 and 54°C. The extraction process was found to be exothermic and the kinetic constants in the three cases determined. It was also observed that the rate of extraction was dependent on extraction time and structural organization of the seeds. The kinetic constants are expected to provide information on the structural organization (crystalline, smectic, nematic or amorphous) of the seeds generating these oils. The enthalpies and entropies of extraction were calculated and a comparison of the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters obtained in the 3 cases was made.

Aim and Objective: This work was designed to extract oils from pumpkin, sesame and Moringa seeds and to determine the kinetics and thermodynnamics of the extraction process at the given temperatures using petroleum ether as solvent.

Methodology: Ten grammes of seeds powder have been introduced in cellulose porous cartridge of 33 X 205 mm and all has been put in soxhlet extractor. In a 1000 mL thrice necked bahloon- flash fitted of a thermometer, 450 mL of petroleum ether (40°-60°c, ϱ=0,65 kg/L) have been introduced as solvent. The fitting out of soxhlet has been done on heating skull cap (mark thermo scientific) in fixing temperature at 56°C(or 54°C for sesame) in balloon flask during a given extraction time. To maintain the temperature constant during the experiment, the heating skull cap has been covered of aluminium paper as heat insulating. The ambient temperature has been kept at 22-23°C. After a given extraction time, the cartridge has been taken up to be dried in the drying oven at 50°C during 24 hours in order to get rid of traces of solvent. The oil-solvent mixture collected in the 1000 mL thrice necked balloon-flask is submitted to rotary evaporator to remove the solvent and the balloon flask with extracted oil is introduced in the drying oven at 105°C during 3 hours to eliminate totally all the traces of humidity.

After this step the balloon flask with oil is cooled in a dessicator and weighed. The difference between the balloon flask containing oil and the empty balloon flask determines the extracted oil mass at a t time in gramme.

Results: The kinetic constants, enthalpies and entropies of the extraction process of the oils from the three different seeds were calculated and compared. In all cases, the rate of oil extraction was found to be directly proportional to time of extraction and structure of the seeds. 

Conclusion: The kinetic and thermodynamic study of the extraction of oils from pumpkin, sesame and Moringa seeds show that the extraction was an exothermic balanced phenomenon. The energy thus released by this operation can be used to perform mechanical or electrical work.  As for the kinetic constants, they are greater in an amorphous body where the entropy is greater. In such a case, the oil extracted was much more under the same temperature and pressure conditions for a given solvent. Under these conditions, the extraction was dependent not only on time, but also on the structural organization of the material generating the oil.

Open Access Review Article

Titrimetric Study of Solubility of Solute Benzoic Acid and Their Partition in Water and Benzene Solvents

Shiv Prakash Mishra

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 40-45
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2021/v30i330223

The solubility and distribution coefficient (K) of solute in solvent is depends on temperature and solute-solvent interaction, where the solute is partitioned between two immiscible solvents phase and dissociated into ionic form. Here, we have reported the titrimetric study for solubility and partition or distribution coefficient of benzoic acid (solute) in aqueous water and in organic benzene which are using as solvents. The benzoic acid solubility (in g/100g of solvent) in water and in benzene solutions have determined by titrimetrically. There is partitioning and concentration of such acid in these solvent phase by shake-flask and acid-base titration method as well. The benzoic acid solubility and their distribution between water and benzene as in different pH buffer solutions have been analyzed at room temperature (25°C) in acidic, neutral and basic (pH 4.0, 7.0 and 9.0) medium, respectively.