Open Access Original Research Article

Removal of Pharmaceutical Residues from Wastewater using Activated Carbon from Rice Husks

P. Kahara, A. Gachanja, J. Kiptoo, G. Nyaga

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2021/v30i530229

The presence of pharmaceutical residues in discharges that end up in rivers is a growing concern for the disruption of aquatic ecosystems and human health. The risk of exposure to these medical wastes becomes greater because they are not biodegradable even after sewage treatment. This study aimed to remove trimethoprim (antibiotic), paracetamol (painkiller), and nevirapine (anti-retroviral) from wastewater using activated carbon made from rice husks, an agricultural waste that was investigated as a potential adsorbent. The instrument used for analysis was a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS). The powdered carbon of rice husks was carbonated at a temperature of 500oC and then activated by phosphoric acid to increase its porosity. After activation, it was successfully characterized by the use of Scanning electron microscopy which showed irregular cavities with open fine pores. Fourier transform infrared showed different functional groups which determined adsorbent- adsorbate interactions while X-ray diffraction revealed amorphous particle arrangement. The effects of the adsorbent dose, contact time, pH, and initial drug concentration were studied. Freundlich and Langmuir's isotherms were used in the evaluation of adsorption phenomena. Thus, obtained results showed that rice husks activated carbon is an effective adsorbent.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Performance of Ethylene Di-Amine Tetra-Acetic Acid Modified Activated Carbon for Lead ion Adsorption from Palm Kernel Shell

Y. Yerima, I. Eiroboyi, W. A. Raji, Y. I. Osakue

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 13-23
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2021/v30i530230

There is increasing research on the adsorption of lead because its use in industrial processes has resulted in various forms of environmental contamination and negative human health issues. Currently, researchers have intensified their search for low-cost adsorbents like activated carbon produced from nonfossil sources. This study is focused on the use of Ethylene Di-Amine Tetra-Acetic Acid for the adsorption of Lead ions. It was conducted to optimize the process variables in the production of Palm Kernel Shell Activated Carbon modified with Ethylene Di-Amine Tetra-Acetic Acid. A 23 three-level Central Composite Design was used to develop a statistical model for the optimization of the time (10-130) X1, pH (5.0 – 7.0) X2, and adsorbent dose (0.4 -5.0g)X3. Data obtained from RSM on activated carbon production were subjected to ANOVA and analyzed using a second-order polynomial equation. The extent of lead ion removal by Ethylene Di-Amine Tetra-Acetic Acid activated carbon from aqueous solution was 96.30% at the solution pH of 7.2, contact time of 70 minutes, and an adsorbent dose of 2.1g/L. The Langmuir isotherm model was in good agreement with the experimental data.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis and Determination of Polyphenol and Iron Concentrations in Some Selected Seaweed Species using UV-Vis

J. I. Bungudu, Lorrie M. Murphy

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 24-31
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2021/v30i530231

Seaweeds readily absorb heavy metals that are present in their environment, because of this; they are an effective way of monitoring heavy metal pollution in an area. The metal that is absorbed can be damaging to the seaweed cell walls. Seaweeds have evolved over time to have excellent antioxidant systems to combat this damage. One antioxidant they produce is polyphenol, a chemical molecule containing many phenol rings that bind to metals and keep them from the damaging the cell walls. They have been shown to be linked to the health benefits of red wine, fruit and vegetables. Samples of different species of seaweed from the Bangor area were collected, processed and analysed for their iron and polyphenol concentrations. Samples were collected from multiple points along the Bangor  coastline,  they  were  dried  and  processed  into  a  fine,  dry  powder.  The iron concentrations were  analysed  by  Atomic  Absorption  Spectroscopy  after  digestion by HNO3. Different species were analysed for the iron and polyphenol content. The whole of the algae was analysed, as well as the nodules and the rest (stipe and blades). The polyphenol concentrations were analysed by a colourimetric assay using the Ragan and Glombitza method and quantified by UV/Vis spectroscopy. Different species were tested in order to see if the concentrations of iron and polyphenol change between species. Different parts of the seaweed were also tested to see where the higher concentrations of the metals were located. Iron concentration statistically significantly changed between all species with the concentrations ranging from 58.0 ± 3.5 mg/Kg to 796.0 ± 10.6 mg/Kg. The Polyphenol concentration changed statistically significantly between some species, but statistically not significant between others. Polyphenol concentration ranged from 63.7 ± 0.3 mg (g dw)-1 to 202.1 ± 6.7 mg (g dw)-1.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Production and Optimization of Bioethanol from Oil Palm Fronds: A Source of Renewable Energy

I. Eiroboyi, Y. Yerima

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 32-43
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2021/v30i530232

Environmental issues and the desire to be less dependent on fossil fuel have intensified research efforts towards the production of biofuels since they are a safe and clean alternatives to fossil fuels. However, the cost of carbohydrate raw materials has become a limiting factor for large-scale production, hence the need to source for low cost feedstock.

This study analyzed the processes and optimization involved in the production of bioethanol from oil palm fronds from Okada, Edo State, Nigeria, as an alternative source of energy. In this study, solid-state fermentation was carried out for the production of fermentable sugars from oil palm fronds inoculated with local isolate Aspergillus niger, the results from this analysis show that the pretreatment of oil palm frond substrate using Aspergillus niger was effective, The process was effectively optimized within the confines of the following parameters; temperature X3 (36-42oC), pH, X2 (5.1-5.7), inoculum, X4(4-22) and fermentation time X1 (0-36hr), an optimum Ethanol yield Y, of 110% was obtained.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Impact of Oil Exploration Activities on Soil, Water and Shrimps of Maa-Or Gbor in Korokoro Community, Rivers State, Nigeria

N. Nwachoko, G. T. Jack, B. B. Dume

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 44-50
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2021/v30i530233

Crude oil exploration and its associated spillage pose a major threat to the environment in Nigeria and if not checked and managed properly, could lead to total annihilation of the ecosystem especially in the Niger Delta Region. Therefore, this study examines the impact of oil spill on soil, water and shrimps from Maa-or gbor. Water and soil samples were collected in the upstream, midstream and downstream, while shrimps from the river were also collected. They were digested with nitric acid. The heavy metal components were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer while physiochemical parameters were determined using different analytical methods. The result of the metals concentration in the soil showed that the values of some of the metals analyzed were within the acceptable limit of FAO/WHO except for Cu, Mn and Fe values. The result of water quality showed that pH values of the stations were in the range of 6.08-6.20 and a mean value of 6.15± 0.05 for the three stations, which is lower than the limit (6.5- 8.5) recommended for drinking water. Also the result showed that Station C had the highest conductivity value when compared with other stations, and significantly differs when compared with station B. However, the values of the electrical conductivity in all the stations were lower than that of FEPA acceptable limit of 250, while the mean value for the stations was 60.9± 3.42. Trace metals concentration in shrimps was below FAO/WHO acceptable limit. The result obtained for water quality index was147. This value is above the recommended standard for drinking water, thus indicates poor quality water status of Maa-or gbor and unfit for human consumption.