Open Access Original Research Article

Sierpinski Carpet and Chaos in the Periodic Table of the Elements

Leila Hojatkashani

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2021/v30i730239

Fractals are self-similar geometric pattern which can be found in nature. They have applications in mathematic, electronic, architecture. Fractal sets also can be used to create chaotic systems. This work is about applying Sierpinski carpet order on the periodic table of the elements to create a new pattern for the chemical elements. Fibonacci numbers and Math lab software are used to transform a linear system to three spiral systems. This new pattern which is consisted of three layers shows that the flows among chemical elements are based on Archimedes spiral equation The purpose of this study is to show Sierpinski carpet order in the periodic table of the chemical elements and also there can be a chaos even in chemical elements.

Open Access Original Research Article

Remediation of Metformin Hydrochloride in Aqueous Solution Using Locally Sourced Seaweed (Fucus spiralis) Through HPLC

J. I. Bungudu, Lorrie M. Murphy

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 15-23
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2021/v30i730240

Metformin hydrochloride is an anti-hyperglycaemic drug that is widely prescribed in the management of noninsulin diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). However, metformin does not undergo complete metabolism in the body thereby excreting significant amount through urine and eventual discharged into the water bodies. Therefore, this work investigates the possibility bio-sorption of metformin by Fucus spiralis seaweed. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and FITR was used for quantifying metformin biosorption. The result shows that Fucus spiralis is a potential biosbent for metformin removal in aqueous solution. The highest removal was up to 74% at 50 µg/mL. It can be mentioned here that this study is the first of it kind in testing seaweed for metformin biosorption.

In conclusion, biomass (Fucus spiralis) was tested for its efficiency in metformin removal in aqueous solution. Adsorption studies revealed that F. spiralis can be used as potential adsorbent for metformin uptake. Very limited literature investigates the application of seaweeds species for pharmaceutical remediation. Remediation of waste and surface water using readily available adsorbent such as seaweed will be useful as it relates to human health and environmental contamination. HPLC was used in this study but other spectroscopic technique such as UV/vis could be explored to ascertain the optimized method. Further studies would be needed to test other algal species for metformin bio sorption.

Open Access Original Research Article

Detection of Organic Additives in Copper Plating Bath Using Voltammetric Methods That Involve a Screen-printed Nano-Au Electrode

Yu-Ching Weng, Jhih-Jie Huang, Chih-Yao Wang, Miao-Zhen Hong

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 24-32
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2021/v30i730241

Three electrochemical methods used to detect organic additives, A, B and C, in acidic plating baths. Cyclic voltammetric stripping (CVS) is used in industry to detect the concentration of organic additives indirectly by measuring the effect of commercial organic additives on the rate of copper deposition. This study directly determines the concentration of organic additives on a screen-printed nano-Au electrode at high potential using three different electrochemical methods: linear scanning voltammetry (LSV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV). The results show that the response currents for the three electrochemical methods exhibit a linear relationship with the concentration of organic additives. The nano-Au electrode is the most sensitive device for the detection of organic additive B using LSV.

Open Access Original Research Article

Detection of Lead (II) on a Boron-doped Diamond Electrode by Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltammetry

Koffi Konan Sylvestre, Kambiré Ollo, Kouadio Kouakou Etienne, Kimou Kouakou Jocelin, Ouattara Lassiné

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 33-46
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2021/v30i730242

Lead, even in low concentrations, can be dangerous and toxic to humans and their environment. Due to the toxicity of this metal, an electroanalytical method has been developed for the direct quantitative determination of Pb2+. The Pb2+ detection was performed using Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltammetry. The quantification of Pb2+ by these electrochemical methods was carried out on a boron-doped diamondmicro electrode in HNO3 medium (0.01 M). This work made it possible to efficiently detect lead with a detection limit equal to 0.052 μM and a quantification limit equal to 0.173 μM. This method made it possible to selectively detect and quantify the Pb2+ in the presence of other metals such as Cd2+ and Cu2+. In the presence of other metals, a recovery rate of 94.53% was observed. This value is close to the recovery rate obtained (98.6%) when the Pb2+ is alone in electrolyte.

Open Access Original Research Article

Crystal Structure, Hirshfeld Surfaces and Energy Framework Studies of a Biologically Active Compound (3E)-3- (2,4- dimethoxybenzyldene) -2,3-dihydro- 4H-chromen-4-one

J. Hemalatha, D. Reuben Jonathan, D. Angeline Shirmila, M. Krishna Priya, K. Laavanya, G. Usha

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 47-64
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2021/v30i730243

A new chalcone derivative (3E)-3-(2,4-dimethoxybenzyldene)-2,3-dihydro-4H-chromen-4-one (DBDB) has been synthesized by following the Claisen-Schmidt condensation reaction method at ambient temperature using the slow evaporation technique. The 3D crystal structure was solved using the single-crystal X-ray diffraction method (XRD). XRD intensity data reveal that the title compound crystallizes in an orthorhombic crystal system with non-centrosymmetric space group P21 21 21. The crystallographic parameters such as bond lengths, bond angles, torsion angles were estimated and are found to be in the normal range and comparable with the literature values. The unit cell packing of the molecules shows that the adjacent molecules are linked via C-H…O hydrogen bonds. Hirshfeld surfaces namely dnorm, electrostatic potential, shape index, and curvedness were analyzed to visualize and to evaluate the weak intermolecular interactions, positive and negative potential regions, C-H…π, and π…π stacking interactions, respectively. The 2D fingerprint plots for the whole and delineated interactions were generated and analyzed to estimate their contributions to the total Hirshfeld surfaces. The pairwise intermolecular interactions were calculated as the sum of four scaled energy components namely electrostatic (Eele), polarization (Epol), dispersion (Edis), and exchange-repulsion (Erep) and graphically represented as energy frameworks. The energy frameworks analysis reveals that the total stabilizing energy is highly influenced by dispersion (Edis) energy than the other components. In-vitro and in-silico investigations have also been performed for the title molecule which discloses the efficacious for use as a drug in inhibiting breast cancer cells without affecting the normal cells.