Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination in Red Seaweeds from the Coastal Areas of Zanzibar by Using EDXRF Technique

Suleiman A. Suleiman, Salum K. Salum, Miza A. Kombo, Atumaini A. Makoba, Fatma O. Khamis

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2021/v30i1030255

The content of Mn, Zn, Ni, Cu, Fe, and Pb in 10 samples of Kappaphycus alvarezii (cottonii) and 10 samples of Eucheuma denticulatum (spinosum) from 15 different sites in the intertidal coastal area of Zanzibar were determined by using EDXRF. The heavy metals assessed in both species decreased in the order of Fe >Mn > Zn >Pb> Cu > Ni. In general, the cottonii samples in Unguja had significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) concentrations of Fe, Zn, Ni, Cu and Pb than the spinosum samples, but the latter had significantly higher levels of Mn. Similarly, the cottonii samples in Pemba had significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) concentrations of Ni, Cu and Pb than the spinosum samples, but the latter had significantly higher levels of Fe and Zn. The concentrations of heavy metals in cottonii and spinosum in the present study were noticed lower compared to publish results. The results from this study revealed that, the heavy metals contaminations in cottonii and spinosum along the coastal area in Zanzibar were mainly caused by effluents that directly flow into marine environments. Hence, serious measures should be taken to reduce the flow of waste effluents into the marine ecosystem.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Occupational Risks in the Toxicology and Pharmacology Laboratory Using the FMECA Method

Khalid Laarej, Mohammed Jbilou, Mustapha Bouatia, Adil Elyadini, Rachid Alami

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 10-23
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2021/v30i1030256

The Toxicology and Pharmacology Laboratory is a high-risk work environment, especially the chemical risk that appears when people are exposed to reagents and chemicals. A corrective approach is required to identify and control these risks. The aim of this study is to determine how to manage the analytical risks at LTP designated for the dosage of drugs and poisons (narcotics, pesticides, mycotoxins, etc.). For this purpose, the risk analysis applying the FMECA method, a risk management tool that aims on the one hand, to qualitatively analyze the process, to analyze the failure modes, the causes and their effects, and to on the other hand, rate the criticality defined by the parameters of frequency of occurrence, severity and detection that will allow a quantitative analysis of each of the failure modes. Thus, the criticality calculation will help to determine the critical risks to be corrected, and to recommend corrective and preventive actions to be implemented within the service.