Harmonizing Biological and Chemical Strategies for Hazardous Chemical Detoxification: An Integrative Review

Lawrence Olusegun Ajala *

Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic, Unwana, Nigeria and Department of Chemistry, Morgan State University, Baltimore, MD 21251, USA.

Cynthia Chioma Anyiam

Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic, Unwana, Nigeria.

Chukwudum Albert Anyiam

Department of Food Technology, Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic, Unwana, Nigeria and Department of Biology, Morgan State University, Baltimore, MD 21251, USA.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

The management and mitigation of hazardous chemicals pose significant challenges to environmental and human health. This comprehensive review critically examines the efficacy of biological and chemical methods for the detoxification of hazardous chemicals. Hazardous chemicals, ranging from organic pollutants to heavy metals, often contaminate soil, water, and air, leading to adverse ecological and health impacts. Traditional chemical-based approaches have limitations, such as secondary pollutant generation and high operational costs. In contrast, biological methods harness the metabolic activities of microorganisms, plants, and enzymes to transform or degrade hazardous compounds. This review evaluates the performance of biological systems, including bioremediation, phytoremediation, and enzyme-based approaches, in detoxifying various classes of hazardous chemicals. Additionally, chemical methods, such as advanced oxidation processes, redox reactions, and adsorption, are scrutinized for their efficiency in chemical degradation and transformation. The comparative analysis considers factors like effectiveness, cost, environmental impact, and applicability to different chemical classes. Understanding the strengths and weaknesses of these detoxification approaches is essential for informed decision-making in environmental remediation and industrial processes. This review offers valuable insights into the selection of appropriate detoxification methods, based on the nature of the hazardous chemicals and the desired environmental and economic outcomes.

Keywords: Biological approaches, chemical methods, comparative analysis, detoxification, hazardous chemicals


How to Cite

Ajala , Lawrence Olusegun, Cynthia Chioma Anyiam, and Chukwudum Albert Anyiam. 2023. “Harmonizing Biological and Chemical Strategies for Hazardous Chemical Detoxification: An Integrative Review”. Chemical Science International Journal 32 (6):31-40. https://doi.org/10.9734/CSJI/2023/v32i6868.

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