Open Access Original Research Article

Speciation Partterns of Some Selected Heavy Metals in the Soil along the Effluent Channels of Juhel Pharmeutical Industry, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria

A. G. Ezeaguba, P. A. C. Okoye, U. C. Umeobika, H. O. Abugu

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/21495

The speciation of some selected heavy metals in soil samples collected along the effluent channels of JUHEL Pharmaceutical industry, Awka was investigated. The pH of the soils had average value of 7.53 and moisture content of 17.96%. The results revealed total metal concentration range of 0.13 mg/kg to 16.49 mg/kg among the metals –Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni, Cu, Co, Zn,Mn, Fe and Ca. Cadmium (Cd) had the lowest metal concentration with a value of 0.13 mg/kg and iron (Fe) had the highest concentration with a value of 16.49 mg/kg. The observed trend for the total metal concentrations was: Fe > Ca > Mn > Pb > Cr > Co > Cu > Ni > Zn > Cd. The computed bioavailability of the metals, for the industry, followed the trend: Ca > Pb > Cu > Cr > Mn > Ni > Cd > Co > Zn > Fe. Metals speciation of the soil samples showed that the highest and lowest partitions were found in the residual and water soluble for the metals Fe, Mn, Pb, Cr, Cu, Ni, Co and Zn, respectively except for Ca which had its highest concentration in the carbonate bound partition, and the lowest concentration in the water soluble fraction. The highest fraction for Cd was found in the residual and Fe-Mn oxide (reducible) forms, with the water soluble fraction having the lowest Cd concentration. Comparison with NESREA standard also revealed low contamination level of the metals, and there was no mean significant difference to conclude that the pollution level of the environment was alarming.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preliminary Phytochemical Screening of Medicinal Plants Found in the Vicinity of Quarry Site in Demsa, Adamawa State, Nigeria

B. A. Mustapha, D. Kubmarawa, M. H. Shagal, B. P. Ardo

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/21519

The preliminary phytochemical screening of bioactive constituents of ethanolic leaves extracts of Anogeissus leiocarpus, Bauhinia reticulata, Prosopis oblonga, Sterculiar tomentosa and Tamarindus indica was carried out. Saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, phenols, tannins, volatile oils, glycoside and steroids were found in all samples of the plants from the study area. Glycoside however was not found in A. leiocarpus from the study site but present in samples from the control area. It was also absent in B. reticulata and T. indica from control area. Alkaloids content has highest value in P. oblonga with 31.2% and 4.8% lower in A. leiocarpus in the quarry site. Also,         P. oblonga showed the highest value of alkaloids 28.0% while B. reticulata has the least value of 7.6% in the control sample. Flavonoids content is higher in P. oblonga sample with the value of 46.8% while A. leiocarpus has the least value of 10.8% in the quarry site. Also, P. oblonga sample has the higher value of 37.6% while B. reticulata has the least value of 21.6% in the control sample. Saponin content is higher in B. reticulata with 39.6% while P.  oblonga has the least value of 22.0% in the quarry site. Also, T. indica has the highest value of 40.8% while A. leiocarpus with least value of 12.0% in the control site. Tannins content is higher with value of 0.09% in                       P. oblonga and B. reticulata respectively while S. tomentosa has the least value of 0.01% in the quarry sample. Also T. indica has the highest value of 0.10% while B. reticulata has the least value of 0.01% in the control sample. Phenols content is higher in P. oblonga with value of 0.42% while T. indica has the least value of 0.09% in quarry samples. Also A. leiocarpus has the highest value of 0.44% while B. reticulata has the least value of 0.02% in the control sample.

Open Access Original Research Article

Human Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Snail (Archachatina marginata) from Four Contaminated Regions in Rivers State, Nigeria

S. C. Onuoha, P. C. Anelo, K. W. Nkpaa

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/22163

This study assessed the health risks of heavy metals contamination in snail (Archachatina marginata) from crude oil producing regions in Rivers State, Nigeria. Cadmium, lead, chromium, nickel, zinc and manganese concentrations in snail muscle tissue taken from the various regions were detected. The potential non-carcinogenic health risks for consumers were investigated by assessing the Estimated Daily Intake and Target Hazard Quotients. Snail caught in the various sites were more contaminated by cadmium and lead (ranged from 0.50 – 0.65 and 2.60 – 5.00 kg/person/day respectively) than Nickel, Manganese, Zinc and Chromium which were below established reference dose. Target Hazard Quotient values indicate that there is no carcinogenic risk for humans except for lead. Carcinogenic Risk for Nickel (4.1 E-3 – 1.0 E-2) indicate that snail from the study sites may not be safe for human consumption and as such consumers of this have the probability of contracting cancer due to Nickel exposure over a lifetime of 70 years or more in future.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study of Removal of Cadmium Ions from Aqueous Solution Using Dialium indum and Santalum album Fruitshells as Adsorbents

N. A. Jibrin, J. Yisa, J. O. Okafor, A. Mann

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/21587

Sandal and velvet tamarind fruit shells were screened for their metal uptake capacities for Cd(II)ions, at various initial concentrations of 10, 20, 30 40 and 50 mg/ L at variable contact period of between 30 and 180 minutes and different adsorbent dosages of 0.2 – 1 g/l, pH(1 to 6) using batch adsorption mode. The adsorbents were characterized using standard methods. The amount of adsorbate adsorbed by the developed adsorbents for Cd2+ increased with increase in initial metal concentration, contact time, adsorbent dosage and pH until equilibrium point was reached. At equilibrium; the optimum contact time for this operation was 90 minutes for velvet tamarind and 120 minutes for sandal fruit, effective pH for both adsorbents is 5.5, the equilibrium initial metal concentrations are 42 and 41 mg/l for sandal fruit and velvet tamarind shell respectively. The data conformed to Freundlich isotherm with r2˃ 0.95 for both adsorbents and were also fit for second-order kinetics. The surface areas of the sandal fruit and velvet tamarind shell as determined were 615 and 570 m2/g. The results obtained from this study indicated a high adsorption ability of the adsorbents for Cd(II) with sandal fruit having better performance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Water and Sediment Samples from Selected Areas of River Ilaje, Nigeria

Akinnawo Solomon

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/22274

Water and sediment samples were collected from 4 different locations along the coastal areas of river Ilaje in Ondo state, Nigeria. The water samples were subjected to liquid-liquid while the sediment samples were subjected to solid-liquid extraction, the extracts were later analyzed for organochlorine pesticide residues using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer. The result shows that organochlorine pesticide residues were not detected in the water samples from all the sampling sites but were detected in some of the sediment samples, Lindane 0.303-0.344 µg/g in Abereke sampling site, while in Ogogoro sampling site Lindane 0.217-0.391 µg/g, Dieldrin 0.103 µg/g and Endosulfan II 0.176 µg/g. The absence of organochlorine pesticide residue in water samples shows that the water is free from organochlorine pesticide contamination but the presence of organochlorine pesticide residues in sediment shows that there is bioaccumulation of organochlorine pesticide residues in the sediment of river Ilaje in the Ondo coastal area of Nigeria. `

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Cyanide and Essential Mineral Contents in Raw and Processed Cassava from Minna, Nigeria

A. I. Ajai, Y. B. Paiko, J. O. Jacob, M. M. Ndamitso, J. Dauda

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/22758

This study investigated the cyanide and mineral content of raw cassava, white and yellow processed cassava obtained from cassava processing centre located at Gwadabe area of Minna, Niger state. The cyanide content was analysed using the alkaline picrate method while the minerals were analysed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The result obtained for the cyanide content ranged from 3.86- 6.84 mg/kg with the raw cassava having the highest cyanide concentration (6.84 mg/kg) and yellow processed cassava, the least (3.86 mg/kg). These values were below the WHO permissible limit of 10 mg/kg cyanide. The result of mineral analysis in the cassava samples ranged 26.6 – 40.96 mg/100 g Ca, 4.15 – 5.14 mg/100 g Cu, 4.30 – 11.50 mg/100 g Mg, 11.92 – 25.53 mg/100 g K, 19.98 – 29.90 mg/100 g Na, 4.34 – 6.10 mg/100 g Fe, 3.93 – 5.10 mg/100 g Mn and 1.94 – 3.18 mg/100 g Zn respectively. Generally, the value obtained was within the permissible level that will not be toxic to health.